Table 2

Recent carcinogenesis studies that demonstrate significant reduction (>∼50%) of promotion of colonic aberrant crypt foci or colon cancer by various agents

Author(s)DateSpeciesInitiationaProtocolbAgentcResultd,e
D. E. Corpet et al. (52)1999RatAOMPromotionalPEGACF/rat reduced 94%e; large ACF reduced 99%
D. Guo et al. (53)1995RatPhIPPromotionalChlorophilinACF/rat reduced 51%; large ACF reduced 70%
T. Kawamori et al. (54)1995RatAOMPromotionalMMTSACF/rat reduced 32%
T. Kawamori et al. (55)1998RatAOMPromotionalCelecoxibTumors/rat reduced 97%; incidence reduced 92%
H. Mori et al. (56)1999RatAOMPromotionalGABA rice germTumors/rat reduced 60%; incidence reduced 53%
J. E. Paulsen et al. (57)1998RatAOMPromotionaln-3 fatty acidsLarge ACF reduced 64%
C. F. Quesada et al. (58)1998MiceApc 1309 gene knockoutPromotionalPiroxicamTumors/rat reduced 44%
B. S. Reddy et al. (59)1987RatAOMPromotionalPiroxicamTumors/rat reduced 84%
S. R. Ritland et al. (60)1999MiceApcMinPromotionalPiroxicamTumors/mouse reduced >90%
I. R. Rowland et al. (61)1998RatAOMPromotionalB. longum, inulinACF/rat reduced 80%; large ACF reduced 59%
T. Tanaka et al. (62)1995RatAOMPromotionalAstaxanthinTumors/rat reduced 82%; incidence 58%
PromotionalCanthaxanthinTumors/rat reduced 69%; incidence 56%
T. Tanaka et al. (63)1997RatAOMPromotionalHesperidinACF/rat reduced 61%
H. Tsuda et al. (64)1999RatAOMPromotionalEGMPACF/rat reduced 37%; large ACF 51%
  • a Initiation: AOM, azoxymethane; PhIP, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; Apc 1309 gene knockout, spontaneous initiation; ApcMin, mice with spontaneous initiation.

  • b Intervention begun after initiation agent exposure.

  • c PEG, polyethylene glycol, MW8000; MMTS, S-methyl methane thiosulfonate; GABA (γ-amino butyric acid)-enriched rice germ; n-3 fatty acids; Bifidobacterium longum and inulin; EGMP, 3-(4′-geranyloxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate.

  • d ACF, assayed at ∼100 days after dietary intervention was begun; large ACF, typically >4 aberrant crypt/ACF; tumors, typically assessed at ∼40 wk after dietary intervention was begun; tumor incidence, fraction of animals with tumors.

  • e All results quoted are reported as statistically significant.