Table 2

NSAID use in cases of pancreatic cancer (n = 504), stomach cancer (n = 254), esophageal cancer (n = 215), gallbladder cancer (n = 125), liver cancer (n = 51), and controls (n = 5952)

GroupTotalNSAID usea
Never usedRegular use initiated ≥1 year previouslyNonregular use
ContinuingbDiscontinuedc
Controls58332339403883003
Pancreas491207417236
ORd1.0e0.80.61.0
95% CI0.5–1.10.3–1.50.8–1.3
Stomach25012383116
OR1.0e0.30.60.7
95% CI0.1–0.60.2–1.80.5–0.9
Esophagus2079319887
OR1.0e0.82.10.9
95% CI0.5–1.40.9–4.80.6–1.2
Gallbladder125579158
OR1.0e0.50.9
95% CI0.3–1.10.6–1.3
Liver49154030
OR1.0e0.91.6
95% CI0.3–2.90.8–3.1
  • a Analysis excludes 22 total cases and 102 controls who initiated regular use within 1 year of admission and 5 total cases and 17 controls with unknown NSAID use.

  • b Use continuing into the year before admission.

  • c Use discontinued at least 1 year before admission.

  • d Adjusted for age, sex, interview year, center, race, religion, cigarettes, family history of digestive cancer, education, and alcohol consumption.

  • e Reference category.