Table 1

Distribution of selected characteristics of lung cancer cases and controls

Cases (n = 503)Controls (n = 465)P
Sex (%)
Male264 (52.5)252 (54.2)0.595
Female239 (47.5)213 (45.8)
Age, yrs (SD)62.3 (9.43)60.9 (10.10)0.049
Smoking status (%)
Never46 (9.3)39 (8.4)0.027
Former230 (46.7)257 (55.4)
Current216 (43.9)168 (36.2)
Pack-years (SD)51.0 (35.05)45.1 (32.12)0.003
Cigarettes/day (SD)27.1 (15.94)26.9 (16.00)0.510
GSTT1 null (%)132 (27.3)104 (22.7)0.106
GSTM1 null (%)246 (49.4)226 (48.8)0.856
Calories/day (SD)2030.9 (698.44)2009.7 (667.65)0.679
Total ITCa day (SD)0.47 (0.51)0.58 (0.84)0.009
Servingsb week (SD)
Broccoli0.84 (0.98)1.13 (1.80)0.007
Cauliflower, Brussels sprouts0.31 (0.53)0.45 (1.42)0.001
Coleslaw, cabbage, sauerkraut0.58 (0.85)0.63 (0.93)0.479
Mustard greens, turnip greens, collard greens, kale0.38 (0.71)0.33 (0.70)0.123
Total cruciferous vegetables2.11 (1.85)2.54 (3.36)0.080
  • a Dietary intake in mg/1000 kcal.

  • b Serving = 0.5 cup of vegetables.