Table 4

Association of childhood ALL with any versus no paternal occupational exposure to specific hydrocarbons

AnytimePreconceptionDuring pregnancyPostnatal
Case/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)a
Solvents, degreasers, or cleaning agents
 Carbon tetrachloride93/731.1 (0.8–1.5)76/591.1 (0.8–1.6)37/291.1 (0.6–1.7)38/321.0 (0.6–1.5)
 Trichloroethylene136/1041.1 (0.8–1.5)100/181.1 (0.8–1.5)56/520.9 (0.6–1.4)77/661.0 (0.7–1.3)
 Perchlorethylene25/230.9 (0.5–1.6)21/220.8 (0.5–1.5)8/140.5 (0.2–1.1)10/150.5 (0.2–1.2)
 Methyl ethyl ketone141/1161.0 (0.8–1.3)107/281.1 (0.8–1.5)69/431.3 (0.9–2.0)89/631.1 (0.8–1.6)
 Benzene97/711.2 (0.8–1.6)74/551.2 (0.8–1.2)28/241.0 (0.6–1.7)40/281.2 (0.7–1.9)
 Toluene104/881.0 (0.8–1.4)82/701.1 (0.8–1.5)43/341.0 (0.6–1.6)54/490.8 (0.6–1.3)
 Xylene85/641.2 (0.8–1.7)67/511.2 (0.8–1.8)43/231.5 (0.9–2.6)51/291.4 (0.9–2.3)
 Freon178/1331.1 (0.9–1.4)126/1011.1 (0.8–1.4)67/610.9 (0.6–1.3)90/750.9 (0.7–1.3)
 Naphtha83/671.0 (0.7–1.4)62/451.2 (0.8–1.7)34/211.3 (0.7–2.2)46/301.2 (0.7–1.9)
 Chlorinated solvents14/150.8 (0.4–1.6)9/81.0 (0.4–2.5)4/60.5 (0.1–1.7)7/110.5 (0.2–1.2)
 Organic, not chlorinated, solvents89/621.2 (0.9–1.7)61/421.3 (0.8–1.9)25/270.8 (0.5–1.4)46/381.0 (0.6–1.6)
 Possible organic solvents222/1771.0 (0.8–1.3)183/1331.1 (0.9–1.4)94/671.1 (0.8–1.5)113/890.9 (0.7–1.3)
 Any above602/4811.0 (0.9–1.2)490/3751.1 (0.9–1.3)276/2211.0 (0.8–1.2)344/2830.9 (0.8–1.1)
Plastic materials
 Polyvinyl chloride59/371.4 (0.9–2.1)46/921.4 (0.9–2.3)22/171.2 (0.6–2.0)30/231.1 (0.6–1.9)
 Polystyrene35/201.5 (0.8–2.6)30/112.4 (1.2–4.8)12/52.1 (0.7–5.9)16/91.5 (0.6–3.3)
 Polyethylene33/171.6 (0.9–2.9)28/141.7 (0.9–3.3)14/91.4 (0.6–3.2)18/121.3 (0.6–2.7)
 Polyurethane76/511.2 (0.8–1.7)55/331.4 (0.9–2.2)34/191.5 (0.8–2.6)67/251.5 (0.9–2.4)
 Other33/271.0 (0.6–1.6)25/161.4 (0.7–2.7)12/81.3 (0.5–3.1)18/160.9 (0.4–1.7)
 Any above152/1131.1 (0.8–1.4)119/721.4 (1.0–1.9)63/391.3 (0.9–2.0)87/631.1 (0.8–1.5)
Paints or thinners
 Spray paints364/3050.9 (0.7–1.1)272/2231.0 (0.8–1.2)157/1211.0 (0.8–1.3)208/1551.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Other paints315/2720.9 (0.7–1.1)226/1960.9 (0.7–1.1)117/921.0 (0.7–1.3)163/1290.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Printing inks100/890.9 (0.6–1.2)78/680.9 (0.7–1.3)36/410.7 (0.4–1.1)47/550.6 (0.4–1.0)
 Lacquers217/1501.1 (0.8–1.3)168/1101.2 (0.9–1.6)90/541.3 (0.9–1.8)119/791.1 (0.8–1.5)
 Turpentine145/1031.1 (0.8–1.5)109/811.1 (0.8–1.5)59/271.7 (1.1–2.8)75/381.5 (1.0–2.2)
 Paint remover167/1290.9 (0.7–1.2)120/951.0 (0.7–1.3)66/381.3 (0.8–1.9)89/501.2 (0.9–1.8)
 Paint thinner193/2350.9 (0.8–1.1)226/1711.0 (0.8–1.3)128/841.2 (0.9–1.5)167/1231.0 (0.7–1.2)
 Lacquer thinner171/1181.1 (0.8–1.3)132/811.3 (0.9–1.7)80/431.4 (0.9–2.0)99/641.1 (0.8–1.8)
 Other8/51.2 (0.4–3.9)5/41.0 (0.3–3.9)1/10.6 (0.0–9.4)2/20.6 (0.1–4.1)
 Any above619/1150.9 (0.8–1.1)478/3881.0 (0.8–1.2)267/2160.9 (0.8–1.1)356/2900.9 (0.7–1.1)
Oil or coal products
 Cooling, cutting oils599/4421.1 (0.9–1.3)507/3821.1 (0.9–1.3)303/2371.0 (0.8–1.2)388/2821.1 (0.9–1.3)
 Coal78/561.2 (0.8–1.7)51/341.3 (0.8–2.0)26/211.0 (0.6–1.9)36/370.8 (0.5–1.4)
 Coal tar113/871.0 (0.8–1.4)74/680.9 (0.6–1.2)42/351.0 (0.6–1.5)67/431.3 (0.8–1.9)
 Petroleum products534/4341.0 (0.8–1.2)465/3691.0 (0.9–1.2)250/2070.9 (0.7–1.1)325/2481.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Greases17/190.7 (0.4–1.4)14/160.7 (0.3–1.5)9/61.2 (0.4–3.3)11/100.8 (0.3–2.0)
 Any above781/6001.1 (0.9–1.2)682/5291.1 (0.9–1.3)427/3351.0 (0.8–1.2)537/3951.1 (0.9–1.3)
Other
 Epoxy resins134/1150.9 (0.7–1.2)92/761.0 (0.8–1.4)49/411.0 (0.6–1.5)59/610.7 (0.5–1.1)
 Formaldehyde73/720.8 (0.6–1.2)52/500.9 (0.6–1.4)31/350.7 (0.5–1.2)43/450.8 (0.5–1.2)
 Synthetics14/111.0 (0.4–2.2)13/101.1 (0.5–2.4)8/32.0 (0.5–7.5)8/51.2 (0.4–3.6)
 Glues294/2131.1 (0.9–1.3)229/1521.2 (1.0–1.6)136/921.1 (0.9–1.5)173/1341.0 (0.7–1.2)
 Exhaust54/610.6 (0.4–0.9)47/500.7 (0.5–1.1)18/240.6 (0.3–1.1)25/300.6 (0.3–1.0)
 Fuels61/301.5 (1.0–2.4)41/221.5 (0.9–2.6)14/130.7 (0.3–1.6)33/191.2 (0.7–2.2)
 Cooking oils5/80.6 (0.2–1.7)5/60.8 (0.3–2.7)1/11.1 (0.1–16.9)1/30.3 (0.0–2.7)
 Thermal decomposition products14/101.1 (0.5–2.6)13/42.7 (0.9–8.5)9/23.6 (0.8–17.0)10/71.1 (0.4–3.0)
 Glycols27/290.7 (0.4–1.2)19/230.7 (0.4–1.3)5/100.4 (0.1–1.1)10/130.5 (0.2–1.3)
 Rubber8/51.2 (0.4–3.8)7/41.5 (0.4–5.2)1/02/11.2 (0.1–13.0)
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons50/490.8 (0.5–1.2)39/331.0 (0.6–1.6)13/170.7 (0.3–1.4)21/250.7 (0.4–1.2)
 Alcohol66/750.7 (0.5–1.0)50/530.9 (0.6–1.3)23/340.6 (0.3–1.0)31/440.6 (0.3–0.9)
 Wax16/131.0 (0.5–2.1)12/120.9 (0.4–1.9)2/30.5 (0.1–3.2)4/40.7 (0.2–2.7)
 Any above534/4490.9 (0.8–1.1)439/3431.0 (0.9–1.3)254/2120.9 (0.8–1.2)322/2870.8 (0.7–1.0)
  • a ORs were adjusted for paternal education, race, family income, age, and sex of the index child.