Table 2

Association of childhood ALL with any versus no maternal occupational exposure to specific hydrocarbons

AnytimePreconceptionDuring pregnancyPostnatal
Case/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)aCase/ControlOR (95% CI)a
Solvents, degreasers, or cleaning agents
 Carbon tetrachloride12/81.6 (0.7–4.1)7/41.9 (0.5–6.8)4/31.4 (0.3–6.8)5/60.8 (0.2–2.7)
 Trichloroethylene15/91.8 (0.8–4.1)9/61.8 (0.6–5.2)6/41.8 (0.5–6.4)9/61.4 (0.5–4.1)
 Perchlorethylene4/90.4 (0.1–1.4)3/21.4 (0.2–8.6)3/21.3 (0.2–8.4)4/80.4 (0.1–1.5)
 Methyl ethyl ketone18/201.0 (0.5–1.9)9/140.8 (0.3–1.9)5/100.6 (0.2–1.8)10/140.7 (0.3–1.7)
 Benzene11/150.7 (0.3–1.6)7/100.7 (0.3–1.8)4/80.5 (0.1–1.6)7/110.6 (0.2–1.6)
 Toluene9/150.7 (0.3–1.5)5/111.5 (0.6–3.8)7/71.2 (0.4–3.5)6/71.1 (0.4–3.4)
 Freon23/132.0 (1.0–4.1)3/71.9 (0.8–5.0)10/51.8 (0.6–5.4)14/72.0 (0.8–5.0)
 Naphtha4/60.6 (0.2–2.1)2/30.5 (0.1–3.0)2/20.7 (0.1–5.1)3/40.7 (0.2–3.2)
 Chlorinated solvents5/23.5 (0.6–18.9)2/11.8 (0.2–20.8)2/11.8 (0.2–20.8)2/21.5 (0.2–11.6)
 Organic, not chlorinated, solvents30/241.4 (0.8–2.4)22/122.0 (1.0–4.2)13/121.1 (0.5–2.5)18/210.9 (0.5–1.6)
 Possible organic solvents60/511.3 (0.9–1.9)39/212.0 (1.2–3.5)29/161.9 (1.0–3.6)38/411.0 (0.6–1.6)
 Any above138/1141.3 (1.0–1.7)93/581.8 (1.3–2.5)68/461.6 (1.1–2.3)87/871.1 (0.8–1.4)
Plastic materials
 Polyvinyl chloride7/23.2 (0.7–15.7)2/11.5 (0.1–17.9)2/11.5 (0.1–17.9)6/22.8 (0.6–14.1)
 Polystyrene3/60.6 (0.1–2.4)2/30.7 (0.1–4.8)2/11.9 (0.2–23.4)3/31.1 (0.2–5.8)
 Polyethylene7/61.3 (0.4–3.9)5/31.6 (0.4–6.9)4/21.7 (0.3–9.7)6/51.2 (0.4–4.2)
 Polyurethane13/72.1 (0.8–5.3)8/32.8 (0.7–10.8)7/17.2 (0.9–60.8)9/51.8 (0.6–5.4)
 Other10/25.1 (1.1–24.2)6/23.4 (0.7–17.8)5/22.5 (0.5–13.4)9/24.1 (0.9–19.6)
 Any above31/142.3 (1.2–4.4)18/92.1 (0.9–4.9)15/62.4 (0.9–6.2)24/102.2 (1.0–4.7)
Paints or thinners
 Spray paints53/591.0 (0.7–1.5)27/241.3 (0.7–2.3)27/211.4 (0.8–2.6)38/331.2 (0.7–1.9)
 Other paints87/821.3 (0.9–1.7)44/281.9 (1.2–3.1)37/222.0 (1.2–3.5)51/471.3 (0.9–2.0)
 Printing inks47/511.1 (0.7–1.6)30/281.3 (0.7–2.1)25/211.4 (0.7–2.5)25/340.9 (0.5–1.5)
 Lacquers25/241.2 (0.6–2.1)16/111.6 (0.7–3.5)15/72.3 (0.9–5.7)20/161.3 (0.7–2.6)
 Turpentine23/201.4 (0.8–2.6)16/91.9 (0.8–4.5)15/53.5 (1.3–10.0)16/121.6 (0.8–3.5)
 Paint remover23/221.2 (0.7–2.2)16/82.5 (1.0–5.9)17/45.2 (1.7–15.8)19/141.4 (0.7–2.9)
 Paint thinner41/391.1 (0.7–1.7)28/151.9 (1.0–3.7)27/93.3 (1.5–7.1)28/271.1 (0.7–1.9)
 Lacquer thinner11/240.5 (0.3–1.2)5/100.6 (0.2–1.8)6/90.7 (0.3–2.2)11/160.8 (0.3–1.7)
 Any above169/1671.1 (0.9–1.4)97/701.6 (1.2–2.2)88/591.7 (1.2–2.3)105/1031.1 (0.8–1.5)
Oil or coal products
 Cooling, cutting oils60/561.1 (0.7–1.6)33/331.0 (0.6–1.7)25/260.9 (0.5–1.7)42/411.0 (0.7–1.6)
 Coal5/51.3 (0.4–4.4)5/16.6 (0.8–56.9)2/12.8 (0.2–31.4)0/5
 Coal tar8/111.0 (0.8–1.4)5/41.8 (0.5–7.1)3/31.9 (0.4–9.4)2/80.4 (0.1–1.7)
 Petroleum products58/531.2 (0.8–1.7)33/311.1 (0.7–1.8)24/270.9 (0.5–1.5)38/371.0 (0.6–1.7)
 Any above104/1071.0 (0.8–1.4)63/621.1 (0.7–1.5)43/540.8 (0.5–1.2)67/790.9 (0.6–1.2)
Other
 Epoxy resins13/141.1 (0.5–2.4)9/101.1 (0.4–2.8)8/51.6 (0.5–5.2)8/71.3 (0.5–3.8)
 Formaldehyde29/410.9 (0.5–1.4)20/251.0 (0.6–1.9)13/200.9 (0.4–1.8)17/320.7 (0.4–1.2)
 Glues77/671.3 (0.9–1.8)47/381.4 (0.9–2.1)35/281.4 (0.8–2.3)47/401.3 (0.8–2.0)
 Exhaust25/281.0 (0.6–1.7)14/151.2 (0.5–2.5)8/130.7 (0.3–1.9)17/171.0 (0.5–2.1)
 Fuels20/111.8 (0.9–3.9)13/71.9 (0.8–4.9)12/62.1 (0.8–5.6)13/81.6 (0.7–4.0)
 Cooking oils4/31.8 (0.4–8.0)1/30.5 (0.1–5.0)0/23/31.4 (0.3–6.9)
 Thermal decomposition prods.9/24.3 (0.9–20.6)3/12.4 (0.2–24.7)4/13.5 (0.4–33.3)7/17.0 (0.8–59.2)
 Glycols2/40.6 (0.1–3.3)2/30.8 (0.1–4.8)2/21.3 (0.2–9.6)2/40.6 (0.1–3.3)
 Ethylene oxide2/70.4 (0.1–2.0)1/12.3 (0.1–37.1)1/12.3 (0.1–37.1)2/70.4 (0.1–2.0)
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons8/111.1 (0.4–2.7)5/23.1 (0.6–17.1)5/22.5 (0.5–13.4)5/80.9 (0.3–2.9)
 Alcohol23/300.8 (0.5–1.5)16/171.0 (0.5–2.1)14/111.4 (0.6–3.2)20/230.9 (0.5–1.8)
 Any above184/1771.2 (0.9–1.5)118/1031.3 (1.0–1.7)90/781.3 (1.0–1.8)127/1261.1 (0.9–1.5)
  • a ORs were adjusted for maternal education, race, and family income.