Table 1A


All controls52.299% vs. all controls72% vs. all controls
London et al., 1995 (15)Los Angeles, CAPCR342 incident cases from 35 hospitals in LA; age: 64 (10) ; 58% male; 4% nonsmokers716 population controls, ethnically matched; ages 63 (8) ; 66% male; 34% nonsmokersSmoking (never, past, current); asbestos exposure (none, possible, probable); β-carotene, vitamin C and E intake
Caucasian (n = 184)51.1Caucasian (n = 465)52.597%60%
African-Americans (n = 158)27.8African-Americans (n = 251)27.188%42%
Kihara et al., 1995 (16)Yokohama, JapanPCR447 incident and prevalent cases ascertained from single center. Asian55.9469 age- and sex-matched population controls; Asian48.6Stratified by smoking, histology100%85%
Moreira et al., 1996 (17)Lisbon, PortugalPCR94 patients from two Lisbon hospitals; age, sex ratio: NS; Caucasian43.984 Portuguese blood donors; age, sex ratio: NS; Caucasian52.3Cancer histology55%22%
Deakin et al., 1996 (18)Staffordshire, UKPCR106 cases; all smokers; 73% male; age 68; Caucasian47.2577 hospital patients without lung disease; 48% male; age 70; 49% never smokers; Caucasian54.8GSTT1 polymorphism86%
128 hospital patients with COPD; all smokers; age 62; 67% male; Caucasian54.767%
All controls54.787%
Harrison et al., 1997 (19)Edinburgh, UKPCR168 lung cancer resection specimens; age, sex ratio: NS;384 blood donors; age, sex ratio: NSAll cases smokers; no data on controls; emphysema94%54%
? Caucasian60.1? Caucasian53.4
Garcia-Closas et al., 1997 (20)Boston, MAPCR416 incident cases; 54% male; age 67 (33–89); 97% Caucasian54.3446 friends and spouses of hospital patients; 47% male; age 64 (27–84); 98% Caucasian52.5Smoking; asbestos and solvent exposure; nutrition; family history; histology; CYP1A1 polymorphism100%82%
Kelsey et al., 1997 (21)TexasPCR168 volunteers; ages 61–63; 4% never smokers;278 age- and ethnically matched healthy volunteers; source, NS; 42% never smokers;Smoking (current, past, never, pack-years); GSTT1 polymorphism
Mexican-Americans (n = 60)55.0Mexican-Americans (n = 146)40.455%21%
African-Americans (n = 108)22.2African-Americans (n = 132)22.763%23%
To-Figueras et al., 1997 (22)Barcelona, SpainPCR160 consecutive patients; 91% male; age 59 (11); 53 pack-years of smoking; Caucasian58.1192 healthy volunteers; blood donors, employees, and hospital staff; age 43 (10); sex ratio: NS; Caucasian49.4Smoking (pack-years); cancer histology87% vs. healthy controls42% vs. healthy controls
120 healthy smokers (37 pack-years) attending detoxification center; sex ratio: NS; age 45 (9) ; Caucasian50.077% vs. healthy smokers34% vs. healthy smokers
All controls49.793% vs. controls combined50% vs. controls combined
El-Zein et al., 1997 (23)TexasPCR54 incident cases; all smokers; 59% male; age 60.2 (11.4); ethnicity: NS42.550 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers; all smokers; source: NS; ethnicity: NS46.0Smoking (pack-years); CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms34%13%