Table 1

Summary of studies of lung cancer and GSTM1 status

InvestigatorPlace of studyAnalytical methodaCasesb% deficientControlsb% deficientExposures/other covariatesPower (RRc > 2.0; α = 0.05)Power (RR > 1.5; α = 0.05)
Seidegard et al., 1986 (6)New York, NY; Lund, SwedenTSO66 incident cases ascertained from a US lung cancer study, patients from NY and Swedish hospitals; 88% male; age 63 (8) ; smokers >20 cigarettes/day;78 healthy participants in US National Lung Cancer Prevention Program; 96% male; age 63 (7) ; smokers >20 cigarettes/day;Smoking (heavy, light); cancer histology47%20%
? Caucasian65.1? Caucasian41.0
Seidegard et al., 1990 (7)New York, NYTSO125 incident cases from two NY Hospitals; 56% male; ages 33–80; smokers >20 pack-years;114 healthy participants in NY Cancer Surveillance program; 47% male; ages 55–66; smokers >20 pack-years;Smoking; cancer histology72%30%
? Caucasian62.4? Caucasian42.1
Zhong et al., 1991 (8)UKS228 prevalent cases; source: NS; age: NS; sex ratio: NS; all history of smoking; Caucasian42.9225 controls chosen randomly from two hospitals and a group of volunteers; age: NS; sex ratio: NS; Caucasian41.8Cancer histology95%54%
Heckbert et al., 1992 (9)Seattle, WATSO66 incident cases ascertained from a cancer registry; ages 20–70; Caucasian63.6120 age- and sex-matched healthy population controls selected by random-digit dialing and a Social Security list; Caucasian58.3Smoking (<20, >20 pack-years); occupation (exposure to lung carcinogens); alcohol49%19%
Hayashi et al., 1992 (10)Saitama, JapanPCR212 prevalent cases from single center; Asian55.7358 age- and sex-matched population controls from same region as cases; Asian46.6CYP1A1 polymorphism97%61%
Hiroven et al., 1993 (11)Helsinki, FinlandPCR138 incident operable lung cancer cases; age: NS; sex ratio: NS; Caucasian52.9142 healthy controls (115 blood donors and 27 volunteers); age: NS; sex ratio: NS;43.7Smoking data (nonsmokers, <40, >40 pack-years) recorded on cases and disease controls; stratified analysis79% vs. healthy controls35% healthy controls
36 hospital controls with benign tumors; Caucasian44.438% vs. hospital controls14% vs. hospital controls
Nazar-Stewert et al., 1993 (12)SeattleTSO ELISA S35 incident surgical patients and autopsy specimens; all cases smokers (>30 years, >100 cigarettes in lifetime); sex ratio: NS; age: >30; 94% white74.343 surgical patients and autopsy specimens from patients with nontobacco related illnesses; ages: 30–80; >100 cigarettes in lifetime; sex ratio: NS; 93% white46.5Smoking (<54, >54 pack-years); cancer histology24% phenotypes10% phenotypes
25/35 cases genotyped64.029/43 controls genotyped48.316% genotypes7% genotypes
Brockmuller et al., 1993 (13)Berlin, GermanyTSO ELISA PCR117 incident cases; ages 40–84; 76% male; 5% nonsmokers; Caucasian53.0155 patient controls (ages 32–84) from same hospital (45% lung disease); 53% male; 13% nonsmokers; Caucasian52.9Smoking data for cases and first group of disease controls (nonsmokers, 1–20, >20 pack-years); cancer histology74% vs. lung disease controls32% vs. lung disease controls
200 patients from same hospital without lung disease; 65% male; smoking data: NS; Caucasian49.580% vs. nonlung disease patient controls36% vs. nonlung disease patient controls
All controls50.087% vs. all controls42% vs. all controls
Alexandrie et al., 1994 (14)SwedenPCR296 incident cases; source: NS; ages: 37–85; 71% males; Caucasian55.7329 healthy controls: laboratory staff (24%), welders (44%), and chimney sweeps (32%); ages 19–65; 91% male; Caucasian52.9Smoking data (pack-years) for COPD controls and some cases; cancer histology98% vs. healthy controls67% vs. healthy controls
79 COPD patients ages 39–85; 35% male; Caucasian49.473% vs. hospital controls31% vs. hospital controls