Table 4

Frequencies of meat intake according to levels of urinary PhIP among study subjects

Seventy-five of the 129 subjects participated in a survey in which current dietary information was collected through self-administered questionnaires.
Meat itemUrinary PhIP, no. of subjects (percentage)ORb (95% CI)
NegativeaPositive
Beef
 <wkly18 (38)14 (52)1.0
 wkly30 (62)13 (48)0.6 (0.2–1.6)
Pork
 <wkly35 (73)18 (67)1.0
 wkly13 (27)9 (33)1.1 (0.4–3.2)
Chicken
 <wkly20 (42)14 (52)1.0
 wkly28 (58)13 (48)0.8 (0.3–2.2)
Fish
 <wkly36 (78)20 (74)1.0
 wkly10 (22)7 (26)1.0 (0.3–3.3)
Sausage
 <wkly30 (62)21 (78)1.0
 wkly18 (38)6 (22)0.5 (0.2–1.6)
Bacon
 <wkly34 (72)22 (77)1.0
 wkly13 (28)6 (23)1.0 (0.3–3.5)
  • a Negative, undetectable levels of PhIP; Positive, detectable levels of PhIP; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • b The odds of weekly consumers of the given meat item possessing detectable levels of PhIP in urine relative to those consuming the meat less frequently, after adjustment for race-ethnicity.