Table 1

Levels of urinary PhIPa among study subjectsb

African-AmericanAsian-AmericanWhiteTotal
NDc22 (49)d23 (55)33 (79)78
ND < Ra ≤ 6.05 (11)6 (14)6 (14)17
6.0 < R ≤ 13.010 (22)5 (12)2 (5)17
13.0 ≤ R8 (18)8 (19)1 (2)17
Total454242129
Geometric mean level3.363.331.182.47
  • a Expressed as ng/g creatinine.

  • b χ2 (6 df) = 16.2, P = 0.01.

  • c ND, not detectable.

  • d Table entries are number of subjects with percentages in parentheses.