Table 2

Biomarkers in children by three ETS exposure groups

Passive exposureCotinine (ng/ml)4-ABP-Hb (pg/g)PAH-albumin (fmol/μg)SCE (per cell)
A: no: no smoker
 Mean0.26423.80.1858.82
 Number25102411
 SD0.5969.220.1421.78
B: yes: household smoker
 Mean0.86932.40.3159.98
 Number39183821
 SD1.1313.40.4492.42
C: yes: mother smokes
 Mean4.6135.90.54310.07
 Number45234432
 SD7.1919.310.5972.28
A < BP = 0.0020.066 a a
B < CP < 0.001 a P = 0.017 a
A < CP < 0.001P = 0.073P < 0.001P = 0.078
  • a P > 0.1, all values adjusted for ethnicity.