Table 2

Potential confounding characteristics of the study groups

Cases (%)Controls (%)
Race
 White272 (53)287 (52)
 Black85 (16)91 (17)
 Hispanic91 (18)101 (18)
 Asian57 (11)65 (12)
 Unknown11 (2)7 (1)
Smoking
 Never180 (35)236 (43)
 Past234 (45)252 (46)
 Current102 (20)63 (11)
Alcohol (g/day)
 0226 (44)263 (48)
 Up to 15a189 (37)201 (36)
 Over 15101 (19)87 (16)
Physical activityb (MET-hours)
 Vigorous activity, <3 times/week391 (76)376 (68)
 Up to 2078 (15)98 (18)
 Over 2046 (9)77 (14)
BMIb (kg/m2)
 13–<25148 (29)217 (40)
 25–<30241 (47)211 (38)
 30–<52126 (24)122 (22)
Vegetable intakec (kcal/day)
 <50174 (34)146 (27)
 50–<200320 (62)375 (68)
 200+22 (4)30 (5)
Red meat intaked (kcal/day)
 <5058 (11)116 (21)
 50–<200228 (44)232 (42)
 200–<400157 (31)151 (27)
 400+73 (14)52 (10)
Total energy intake (kcal/day)
 <1500151 (29)178 (32)
 1500–<2000127 (25)174 (32)
 2000+238 (46)199 (36)
  • a 15 g corresponds to about one drink.

  • b Data missing on one or two subjects.

  • c Includes tomatoes, tofu or soybeans, string beans, broccoli, cabbage or cole slaw, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, carrots, corn, peas or lima beans, mixed vegetables, beans or lentils, winter squash, eggplant, zucchini or summer squash, spinach, kale, mustard or chard greens, yams or sweet potatoes, lettuce, celery, beets, and alfalfa sprouts.

  • d Includes bacon, hot dogs, processed meats, beef, pork, and lamb.