Table 1

Sunlight exposure and breast cancer risk among white women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1971–1975 to 1992

Breast cancer casesAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate-adjusted RR (95% CI)a
Sun exposure determined by physician
 Unimpressive941.01.0
 Moderate750.89 (0.66–1.20)0.85 (0.63–1.15)
 Considerable200.70 (0.43–1.14)0.70 (0.43–1.14)
P for trendP = 0.14P = 0.11
Actinic skin damage
 Noneb621.01.0
 Nonec530.95 (0.66–1.37)0.92 (0.64–1.34)
 Minimal510.91 (0.62–1.33)0.88 (0.60–1.29)
 Moderate/severe240.80 (0.49–1.31)0.80 (0.48–1.29)
P for trendP = 0.38P = 0.32
Recreational sun exposure
 Rare or never401.01.0
 Occasional550.70 (0.46–1.06)0.65 (0.43–0.98)
 Frequent600.70 (0.47–1.05)0.66 (0.44–0.99)
P for trendP = 0.12P = 0.08
Occupational sun exposure
 Rare or never811.01.0
 Occasional441.05 (0.73–1.51)1.06 (0.73–1.53)
 Frequent290.60 (0.39–0.91)0.64 (0.41–0.98)
P for trendP = 0.03P = 0.07
Combined recreational and occupational sun exposure
 Low321.01.0
 Medium990.67 (0.45–1.01)0.81 (0.56–1.17)
 High230.50 (0.29–0.86)0.67 (0.42–1.06)
P for trendP = 0.01P = 0.06
  • a Adjusted for age, education, age at menarche, age at menopause, body mass index, frequency of alcohol consumption, and physical activity.

  • b No actinic skin damage and unimpressive sun exposure, as determined by the physician.

  • c No actinic skin damage and moderate or considerable sun exposure, as determined by the physician.