Table 1

2 × 2 × 2 factorial study design

Antibacterial treatmentaNo antibacterial treatment
AA + BCbAA + PAA + BCAA + P
BC + P P + PBC + P P + P
  • a Triple therapy included amoxicillin, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate.

  • b AA, ascorbic acid; BC, β-carotene; P, placebo.