Table 3

RR of distant metastatic and fatal prostate cancer for an increment of 15 pack-years of cigarettes smoked in the prior decade (1976–1986) for all men (1986–1994) and RR among men (1988–1994) who reported a negative digital rectal examination in 1988

nRRa (95% CI)P, trend
1986–1994 (total)
 Metastatic1521.55 (1.04–2.33)0.03
 Fatal1031.77 (1.11–4.07)0.02
1988–1994 (negative digital rectal  examination in 1988)
 Metastatic572.05 (1.12–3.75)0.02
 Fatal372.40 (1.17–4.91)0.02
  • a RR and 95% CI adjusted for age (in 2.5-year increments), body mass index at age 21 (six categories), and quintiles of intakes of calcium, total fat, vitamin E, and lycopene by multiple logistic regression.