Table 1

Relative risk of prostate cancer according to smoking status updated every 2 years in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986– 1994)

Never smokedPast smokersCurrent smokers
Stopped ≥10 yearsStopped <10 years
Person-years170,825101,03847,99031,408
Total prostate cancer (n)a580503174112
 Age-adjusted RR1.00.991.041.05
 RRb1.00.991.031.04
 95% CI0.88–1.120.87–1.220.85–1.27
Distant metastaticc
Prostate cancer (n)58552613
 Age-adjusted RR1.01.061.581.23
 RRb1.01.071.561.23
 95% CI0.74–1.540.98–2.480.67–2.24
Fatal prostate cancer (n)38351911
 Age-adjusted RR1.01.031.751.59
 RRb1.01.041.731.58
 95% CI0.66–1.641.00–3.010.81–3.10
  • a Excluding stage A1 cases.

  • b RR and 95% CI adjusted for age (in 2.5-year increments), body mass index at age 21 (six categories), and quintiles of intakes of calcium, total fat, vitamin E, and lycopene by multiple logistic regression. Age and smoking status are updated every 2 years.

  • c Includes all cases that were distant metastatic at diagnosis or fatal by 1994.