Table 6

Meat consumption and preparation and GSTM1 genotype: ORs and 95% CIsa

VariableMenWomenGSTM1 genotype
PresentNull
Amount of red meatb≤2.6≤1.71.01.1 (0.8–1.4)
2.7–4.61.8–3.21.2 (0.9–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
4.7–8.03.3–5.41.3 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
>8.0>5.41.1 (0.8–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Frequency of fried, broiled, baked, or barbecued red meatc≤52≤521.01.0 (0.8–1.2)
53–10453–1041.1 (0.9–1.5)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
105–156105–1561.4 (1.0–1.8)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
>156>1560.9 (0.7–1.2)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Preferred doneness of red meatRare/medium rare1.00.9 (0.7–1.2)
Medium-well done1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Well done1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Frequency of red meat drippingsc001.01.1 (0.9–1.4)
1–121–120.9 (0.7–1.2)0.8 (0.6–1.0)
13–5213–361.1 (0.8–1.4)0.8 (0.6–1.1)
>52>361.0 (0.8–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Red meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.2 (0.8–1.5)
21.0 (0.7–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
31.1 (0.9–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
High1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
Amount of processed meatb≤0.6≤0.31.01.0 (0.8–1.4)
0.7–1.40.4–0.71.3 (1.0–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
1.5–2.60.8–1.51.2 (0.9–1.6)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
>2.6>1.51.2 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Amount of poultryb≤0.6≤0.71.01.0 (0.7–1.3)
0.7–1.30.8–1.40.9 (0.6–1.1)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
1.4–2.41.5–2.31.1 (0.9–1.5)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
>2.4>2.31.1 (0.8–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Frequency of fried, broiled, baked, or barbecued white meatc≤52≤521.01.1 (0.9–1.4)
53–7253–1041.1 (0.7–1.5)0.9 (0.7–1.3)
73–104105–1561.1 (0.9–1.4)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
>104>1561.4 (1.1–1.8)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Frequency of use of white meat drippingsc01.01.0 (0.8–1.2)
1–121.0 (0.8–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.1)
>121.2 (0.9–1.6)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
White meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.0 (0.8–1.4)
21.1 (0.9–1.5)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
31.2 (0.9–1.6)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
High1.4 (1.1–1.9)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Total meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.2 (0.9–1.5)
21.1 (0.9–1.6)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
31.4 (1.0–1.8)1.0 (0.8–1.4)
High1.4 (1.0–1.8)1.3 (1.0–1.8)
  • a Adjusted for age, BMI, calories, dietary fiber, lifetime physical activity, and usual no. of cigarettes smoked.

  • b Servings per week.

  • c Frequency per year.