Table 5

Meat consumption and preparation and NAT2 phenotype: ORs and 95% CIsa

VariableCategoriesImputed NAT2 phenotype
MenWomenSlow acetylatorIntermediate or rapid acetylator
Amount of red meatb≤2.6≤1.71.01.2 (0.9–1.6)
2.7–4.61.8–3.21.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
4.7–8.03.3–5.41.2 (0.9–1.6)1.4 (1.0–1.8)
>8.0>5.41.0 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Frequency of fried, broiled, baked, or barbecued red meatc≤52≤521.01.1 (0.8–1.3)
53–10453–1041.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.7–1.5)
105–156105–1561.2 (0.9–1.5)1.1 (0.7–1.5)
>156>1561.0 (0.8–1.2)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Preferred doneness of red meatRare/medium rare1.00.9 (0.7–1.2)
Medium-well done1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
Well done1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Frequency of red meat drippingsc001.01.0 (0.8–1.2)
1–121–120.8 (0.6–1.0)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
13–5213–360.9 (0.7–1.1)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
>52>360.8 (0.7–1.1)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Red meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.0 (0.8–1.4)
20.9 (0.7–1.2)0.9 (0.7–1.3)
31.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
High1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
Amount of processed meatb≤0.6≤0.31.01.1 (0.8–1.5)
0.7–1.40.4–0.71.2 (0.9–1.6)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
1.5–2.60.8–1.51.3 (1.0–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
>2.6>1.51.1 (0.8–1.5)1.5 (1.1–2.0)
Amount of poultryb≤0.6≤0.71.01.2 (0.9–1.6)
0.7–1.30.8–1.40.9 (0.7–1.2)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
1.4–2.41.5–2.31.1 (0.9–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
>2.4>2.31.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Frequency of fried, broiled, baked, or≤52≤521.01.2 (1.0–1.5)
 barbecued white meatc53–7253–1041.0 (0.8–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
73–104105–1561.0 (0.8–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
>104>1561.3 (1.0–1.6)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
Frequency of use of white meat drippingsc01.01.0 (0.9–1.2)
1–120.9 (0.7–1.1)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
>121.0 (0.8–1.3)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
White meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.1 (0.8–1.4)
21.1 (0.8–1.4)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
31.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
High1.2 (1.0–1.6)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Total meat Mutagen IndexLow1.01.0 (0.8–1.4)
21.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
31.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
High1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
  • a Adjusted for age, BMI, calories, dietary fiber, lifetime physical activity, and usual no. of cigarettes smoked.

  • b Servings per week.

  • c Frequency per year.