Table 3

Use of oral contraceptives and risk of renal cell carcinoma

CasesControlsORa (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)
Ever used oral contraceptives
 No2582551.01.0
 Yes1641671.0 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Age started (yr)
 <2025231.0 (0.5–2.2)1.0 (0.5–2.2)
 20–<3071820.8 (0.5–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.3)
 30–<4046391.3 (0.7–2.1)1.3 (0.7–2.2)
 40+20181.2 (0.6–2.3)1.2 (0.6–2.4)
Total duration (mo)
 <1244431.1 (0.7–1.8)1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 12–<6050610.9 (0.5–1.4)0.9 (0.5–1.4)
 60–<12036341.1 (0.6–1.9)1.1 (0.6–1.9)
 120+34261.3 (0.7–2.3)1.3 (0.7–2.3)
Cumulative lifetime dose of estrogen (mg)c
 <8.959561.1 (0.7–1.7)1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 8.9–<44.246600.8 (0.5–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.3)
 44.2+59481.2 (0.8–2.0)1.2 (0.8–1.9)
  • a Adjusted for level of education.

  • b Adjusted for level of education and history of hysterectomy.

  • c The sum was less than the total number of users due to the exclusion of subjects with a missing value in the analysis.