Table 1.

Characteristics of the study sample

Cases (n = 1,191)Controls (n = 999)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI) a
Mean age ± SD, y52.6 ± 11.360.4 ± 11.1
Sex, n (%)
 Male617 (51.8)478 (47.8)
 Female574 (48.2)521 (52.2)
Center, n (%)
 Ontario, Canada417 (35.0)501 (50.2)
 Melbourne, Australia330 (27.7)189 (18.9)
 Seattle444 (37.3)309 (30.9)
Mean height ± SD, m1.71 ± 0.101.70 ± 0.102.23 (0.96 -5.19)0.25 (0.06 -1.04)
 Unknown/missing10
BMI (kg/m2), n (%)
 18.5–25.0 (normal)379 (32.8)408 (41.5)1.001.00
 25.1–30 (overweight)490 (42.4)382 (38.8)1.38 (1.14–1.68)1.51 (1.20–1.90)
 30+ (obese)287 (24.8)194 (19.7)1.59 (1.23–2.00)1.57 (1.20–2.01)
 Mean ± SD, kg/m227.40 ± 5.4326.63 ± 5.301.03 (1.01–1.04)1.03 (1.02 -1.05)
 Unknown/missing2914
Alcohol use, n (%)
 <1 per wk428 (36.1)336 (33.7)1.001.00
 ≥1 per wk757 (63.9)661 (66.3)0.90 (0.75–1.07)0.77 (0.62–0.95)
 Unknown/missing62
Smoking, n (%)
 Never508 (43.2)437 (44.5)1.001.00
 Ever668 (56.8)544 (55.5)1.06 (0.89–1.25)1.27 (1.04–1.55)
 Mean pack-years ± SD13.14 ± 20.3612.85 ± 19.581.001 (0.996–1.005)1.008 (1.003–1.013)
 Unknown/missing1518
NSAIDs, n (%)
 Never765 (64.3)534 (53.5)1.001.00
 Ever425 (35.7)465 (46.5)0.64 (0.54–0.76)0.69 (0.56–0.85)
 Unknown/missing10
Folic acid, bn (%)
 Never558 (47.0)494 (49.4)1.001.00
 Ever630 (53.0)505 (50.6)1.10 (0.93–1.31)0.98 (0.80–1.21)
 Unknown/missing30
Multivitamins, n (%)
 Never608 (51.4)519 (52.2)1.001.00
 Ever576 (48.6)475 (47.8)1.04 (0.87–1.23)0.98 (0.79–1.20)
 Unknown/missing75
Calcium, n (%)
 Never919 (77.6)645 (64.8)1.001.00
 Ever265 (22.4)350 (35.2)0.53 (0.44–0.64)0.65 (0.51–0.82)
 Unknown/missing74
Postmenopausal hormones, cn (%)
 Never407 (71.2)255 (49.1)1.001.00
 Ever165 (28.8)264 (50.9)0.39 (0.31–0.50)0.60 (0.44–0.81)
 Unknown/missing22
Oral contraceptives, cn (%)
 Never206 (36.3)206 (39.7)1.001.00
 Ever361 (63.7)313 (60.3)1.15 (0.90–1.47)0.59 (0.43–0.80)
 Unknown/missing72
Physically active, n (%)
 No469 (58.7)393 (57.5)1.001.00
 Yes330 (41.3)291 (42.5)0.95 (0.77 -1.17)1.07 (0.84–1.37)
 Unknown/missing392315
Mean number of servings per wk of fruit ± SD10.45 ± 8.5311.42 ± 8.20.986 (0.976–0.996)0.991 (0.979–1.003)
 Unknown/missing3315
Mean number of servings per wk vegetables ± SD14.26 ± 11.2314.59 ± 10.370.997 (0.99 -1.005)0.994 (0.985–1.004)
 Unknown/missing65
Mean number of servings per wk of red meat ± SD4.75 ± 4.343.96 ± 3.761.053 (1.029–1.079)1.053 (1.025–1.082)
 Unknown/missing4148
  • aAdjusted for age, sex, and center.

  • bIncludes multivitamin users.

  • cFemales only.