Table 3.

Associations of serum lycopene concentration with the risk of total, low-, and high-grade prostate cancer, stratified by indication for prostate biopsy. PCPT, 1994 to 2003

Odds ratio (95% CI)a
Lycopene (μg/dL)
Q1 (<26.3)bQ2 (26.3-<36.0)bQ3 (36.0-<46.6)bQ4 (≥46.6)bPtrendPcContinuous per 10 μg/dLP
Placebo
Totald<0.01
 For cause1.000.72 (0.52,0.99)0.71 (0.51,0.99)0.76 (0.54,1.07)0.130.93 (0.86. 1.00)0.06
N (cases/controls)124/25297/250100/258109/248430/1,008
 Not for cause1.001.24 (0.90,1.71)1.35 (0.98,1.85)1.42 (1.03,1.96)0.031.08 (1.01,1.16)0.03
N (cases/controls)104/252135/250149/258157/248545/1,008
Gleason 2–60.01
 For cause1.000.60 (0.41,0.88)0.67 (0.46,0.97)0.70 (0.48,1.03)0.120.92 (0.84,1.01)0.10
N (cases/controls)87/25258/25068/25874/248287/1,008
 Not for cause1.001.13 (0.80,1.59)1.39 (1.00,1.95)1.31 (0.92,1.85)0.071.07 (0.99,1.16)0.08
N (cases/controls)86/252104/250131/258127/248448/1,008
Gleason 7–100.13
 For cause1.000.92 (0.54,1.54)0.73 (0.42,1.26)0.88 (0.51,1.53)0.500.94 (0.82,1.07)0.35
N (cases/controls)34/25233/25026/25831/248124/1,008
 Not for cause1.001.48 (0.76,2.91)1.06 (0.51,2.21)1.80 (0.90,3.58)0.191.12 (0.96,1.30)0.16
N (cases/controls)16/25223/25016/25825/24880/1,008
Finasteride
Totald0.18
 For cause1.000.95 (0.66,1.37)0.69 (0.46,1.02)0.81 (0.55,1.20)0.140.95 (0.87,1.04)0.26
N (cases/controls)92/185100/18966/17984/190342/743
 Not for cause1.000.89 (0.61,1.3)1.05 (0.72,1.53)1.02 (0.69,1.49)0.721.01 (0.92,1.10)0.89
N (cases/controls)86/18585/18996/17999/190366/743
 Gleason 2–60.03
For cause1.000.70 (0.44,1.12)0.44 (0.25,0.75)0.57 (0.34,0.95)0.010.88 (0.78,1.00)0.04
N (cases/controls)53/18543/18925/17937/190158/743
 Not for cause1.000.84 (0.55,1.28)1.08 (0.71,1.65)0.98 (0.64,1.51)0.761.00 (0.91,1.11)0.95
N (cases/controls)62/18559/18972/17971/190264/743
Gleason 7–100.71
 For cause1.001.27 (0.79,2.06)0.94 (0.56,1.59)1.07 (0.63,1.82)0.881.00 (0.89,1.13)0.95
N (cases/controls)38/18553/18935/17941/190167/743
  Not for cause1.001.23 (0.65,2.34)1.06 (0.54,2.08)1.22 (0.63,2.38)0.691.02 (0.88,1.19)0.75
N (cases/controls)19/18525/18921/17925/19090/743
Totald,e
Total<0.01
 For cause1.000.82 (0.64,1.04)0.70 (0.55,0.91)0.78 (0.61,1.01)0.030.94 (0.88,0.99)0.03
N (cases/controls)216/437197/439166/437193/438772/1,751
 Not for cause1.001.08 (0.85,1.38)1.22 (0.96,1.55)1.24 (0.97,1.58)0.061.05 (0.99,1.11)0.08
N (cases/controls)190/437220/439245/437256/438911/1,751
Gleason 2–6<0.01
 For cause1.000.64 (0.48,0.86)0.58 (0.43,0.79)0.65 (0.48,0.88)0.010.91 (0.84,0.98)0.01
N (cases/controls)140/437101/43993/437111/438445/1,751
 Not for cause1.001.00 (0.77,1.31)1.26 (0.97,1.64)1.17 (0.89,1.53)0.101.04 (0.98,1.11)0.16
N (cases/controls)148/437163/439203/437198/438712/1,751
Gleason 7–100.19
 For cause1.001.10 (0.77,1.56)0.84 (0.58,1.23)0.99 (0.68,1.45)0.580.98 (0.89,1.06)0.57
N (cases/controls)72/43786/43961/43772/438291/1,751
 Not for cause1.001.35 (0.85,2.15)1.07 (0.65,1.75)1.49 (0.92,2.40)0.231.07 (0.96,1.19)0.22
N (cases/controls)35/43748/43937/43750/438170/1,751
  • aControlled for age, race, diabetes, serum cholesterol, and BMI.

  • bQuartiles were calculated using distribution among controls.

  • cA Wald χ2 test was used to compare parameter estimates for lycopene (trend) between for-cause and not-for-cause cancers.

  • dIncludes participants with missing grade.

  • eControlled in addition for treatment arm.