Table 2.

Dietary intake of nutrients, food groups and dietary patterns and risk of pancreatic cancer

Quintiles of dietary intake or dietary pattern scoresPtrend
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Nutrient intake
Total calorie
 Median, kcal/d1,1071,4491,7182,0272,567
 Cases5650514455
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.88 (0.60–1.28)0.89 (0.61–1.30)0.77 (0.52–1.15)0.96 (0.66–1.39)0.77
 Multivariate HRa1.00.90 (0.61–1.32)0.86 (0.58–1.27)0.81 (0.54–1.21)0.97 (0.66–1.42)0.81
Carbohydrate
 Median, g/d141.0182.0203.3222.0252.7
 Cases5374434442
 Age-adjusted HR1.01.32 (0.93–1.88)0.75 (0.50–1.12)0.75 (0.50–1.12)0.71 (0.47–1.07)0.008
 Multivariate HRa1.01.38 (0.96–1.99)0.83 (0.55–1.25)0.84 (0.56–1.27)0.81 (0.53–1.23)0.06
Vitamin C
 Median, mg/d82.40137.50184.25271.80678.55
 Cases5355475447
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.99 (0.68–1.45)0.84 (0.57–1.25)0.98 (0.67–1.44)0.87 (0.59–1.29)0.53
 Multivariate HRa1.01.09 (0.73–1.62)0.97 (0.65–1.46)1.16 (0.78–1.72)0.99 (0.66–1.49)0.84
Vitamin E
 Median, mg/d5.26.98.722.1241.0
 Cases5651595139
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.88 (0.60–1.29)1.03 (0.71–1.48)0.89 (0.61–1.30)0.68 (0.45–1.02)0.05
 Multivariate HRa1.00.93 (0.63–1.38)1.07 (0.73–1.57)0.95 (0.65–1.41)0.76 (0.50–1.16)0.13
Food group intake
Total vegetables
 Median (servings/wk)11.517.522.028.040.0
 Cases4843535656
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.89 (0.59–1.35)1.09 (0.74–1.61)1.14 (0.78–1.68)1.16 (0.79–1.70)0.26
 Multivariate HRa1.00.82 (0.53–1.26)1.13 (0.76–1.68)1.15 (0.77–1.71)1.21 (0.81–1.80)0.14
Total fruits
 Median (servings/wk)6.512.516.521.029.5
 Cases5153614843
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.96 (0.65–1.41)1.10 (0.75–1.59)0.85 (0.57–1.27)0.77 (0.51–1.15)0.15
 Multivariate HRa1.01.12 (0.75–1.67)1.27 (0.86–1.88)1.02 (0.67–1.55)0.98 (0.64–1.50)0.71
Total vegetables and fruits
 Median, servings/wk22.032.04.048.064.5
 Cases5146584754
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.85 (0.57–1.27)1.07 (0.73–1.55)0.85 (0.57–1.27)1.00 (0.68–1.46)0.97
 Multivariate HRa1.00.95 (0.63–1.43)1.15 (0.77–1.71)1.00 (0.66–1.51)1.18 (0.79–1.77)0.38
Red meat
 Median, servings/wk2.03.55.07.09.0
 Cases5443525552
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.79 (0.53–1.18)0.95 (0.65–1.39)1.00 (0.69–1.46)0.96 (0.65–1.40)0.78
 Multivariate HRa1.00.85 (0.57–1.28)0.99 (0.67–1.47)1.06 (0.72–1.55)0.97 (0.65–1.44)0.79
Dietary pattern scores
High vegetable
 Cases4943585056
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.89 (0.59–1.34)1.20 (0.82–1.76)1.05 (0.71–1.56)1.23 (0.84–1.81)0.06
 Multivariate HRa1.00.83 (0.54–1.26)1.19 (0.81–1.75)1.04 (0.69–1.56)1.25 (0.84–1.87)0.03
Low fat
 Cases5650485250
 Age-adjusted HR1.0500.82 (0.56–1.20)0.76 (0.52–1.12)0.80 (0.54–1.17)0.76 (0.52–1.12)0.23
 Multivariate HR*1.00.93 (0.62–1.38)0.90 (0.60–1.36)0.95 (0.63–1.42)0.97 (0.64–1.47)0.99
Mediterranean
 Cases5450395360
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.96 (0.65–1.41)0.77 (0.51–1.16)1.09 (0.75–1.59)1.32 (0.91–1.92)0.07
 Multivariate HRa1.00.92 (0.62–1.36)0.69 (0.44–1.06)1.00 (0.67–1.49)1.27 (0.84–1.90)0.14
High fiber
 Cases5456445646
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.97 (0.66–1.41)0.73 (0.49–1.09)0.92 (0.63–1.34)0.73 (0.49–1.09)0.20
 Multivariate HRa1.01.04 (0.71–1.53)0.79 (0.52–1.19)1.08 (0.73–1.60)0.85 (0.56–1.29)0.74
High sweet
 Cases5048595940
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.89 (0.60–1.32)1.08 (0.74–1.58)1.08 (0.74–1.57)0.74 (0.49–1.12)0.11
 Multivariate HRa1.00.93 (0.63–1.39)1.05 (0.71–1.55)1.09 (0.74–1.60)0.74 (0.48–1.13)0.10
High fruit
 Cases5252554948
 Age-adjusted HR1.00.97 (0.66–1.42)1.03 (0.70–1.50)0.91 (0.61–1.34)0.91 (0.62–1.35)0.28
 Multivariate HRa1.00.96 (0.65–1.42)1.05 (0.72–1.55)0.94 (0.63–1.40)0.96 (0.64–1.43)0.41

Note: HRs and 95% CIs in parentheses.

  • aAdjusted for age (continuous), race, education (less than high school, high school, greater than high school), alcohol intake (yes/no), smoking (current, past, never smoker), physical activity (low, moderate, high).