Table 2.

Adjusteda HRs for bladder cancer by heme iron and red meat intake, ENOC, and NDMA

 Heme ironRed meat intakebENOCNDMA
CasesHRCasesHRCasesHRCasesHR
Tobacco smoking
Current smokers (n = 108,011)
 Q1411.00431.00401.00481.00
 Q2871.16 (0.79–1.71)801.04 (0.70–1.52)791.04 (0.71–1.54)630.96 (0.65–1.43)
 Q31051.03 (0.70–1.53)1010.92 (0.63–1.35)1121.07 (0.73–1.57)940.99 (0.67–1.45)
 Q41871.20 (0.80–1.79)1961.12 (0.76–1.65)1891.18 (0.79–1.75)2151.06 (0.71–1.58)
Ptrend0.430.540.350.67
 log24201.07 (0.94–1.23)4201.06 (0.92–1.21)4201.12 (0.85–1.48)4200.98 (0.89–1.09)
Former smokers (n = 128,094)
 Q1761.00571.00721.00601.00
 Q2810.94 (0.67–1.32)871.16 (0.82–1.66)790.94 (0.67–1.33)691.29 (0.90–1.21)
 Q31061.12 (0.81–1.56)1121.25 (0.88–1.79)1071.07 (0.76–1.50)871.21 (0.83–1.75)
 Q41050.95 (0.65–1.37)1121.01 (0.69–1.49)1100.94 (0.64–1.37)1521.24 (0.83–1.86)
Ptrend0.870.950.900.41
 log23681.03 (0.94–1.14)3681.07 (0.97–1.18)3680.97 (0.73–1.30)3681.01 (0.91–1.12)
Never smokers (n = 235,401)
 Q1511.00411.00411.00551.00
 Q2491.01 (0.67–1.54)641.50 (1.00–2.26)551.30 (0.85–2.00)551.32 (0.88–1.97)
 Q3571.22 (0.81–1.85)551.35 (0.86–2.10)551.38 (0.88–2.16)451.11 (0.70–1.76)
 Q4501.13 (0.71–1.80)471.25 (0.75–2.08)541.36 (0.83–2.21)521.06 (0.62–1.80)
Ptrend0.510.520.240.94
 log22071.06 (0.94–1.20)2071.04 (0.93–1.17)2051.24 (0.86–1.79)2070.95 (0.82–1.10)
Sex
Male (n = 142,010)
 Q1901.00701.00761.00781.00
 Q21281.09 (0.82–1.45)1351.29 (0.95–1.75)1301.01 (0.60–1.70)1061.23 (0.90–1.67)
 Q31851.16 (0.87–1.54)1901.26 (0.93–1.71)1880.90 (0.53–1.54)1581.23 (0.91–1.66)
 Q43021.22 (0.91–1.64)3101.26 (0.92–1.72)3090.94 (0.54–1.61)3631.24 (0.90–1.69)
Ptrend0.180.360.800.30
 log27051.06 (0.97–1.15)7051.05 (0.97–1.14)7030.99 (0.88–1.12)7051.00 (0.93–1.08)
Female (n = 339,409)
 Q1811.00741.00811.00871.00
 Q2911.05 (0.76–1.44)981.20 (0.87–1.64)840.93 (0.67–1.28)841.18 (0.85–1.64)
 Q3831.10 (0.79–1.54)791.06 (0.75–1.50)861.10 (0.79–1.54)680.96 (0.66–1.41)
 Q4410.89 (0.58–1.36)450.98 (0.64–1.50)450.91 (0.60–1.34)571.02 (0.66–1.57)
Ptrend0.700.870.990.85
 log22961.05 (0.94–1.16)2961.07 (0.97–1.19)2960.95 (0.68–1.32)2960.95 (0.84–1.08)
Occupational exposure risk
High (n = 389,996)c
 Q1211.00121.00191.00291.00
 Q2250.61 (0.33–1.12)321.28 (0.65–2.53)350.92 (0.52–1.64)310.97 (0.56–1.69)
 Q3440.66 (0.37–1.17)521.27 (0.66–2.45)460.73 (0.41–1.31)300.58 (0.32–1.06)
 Q41130.93 (0.52–1.67)1071.32 (0.68–2.57)1030.90 (0.50–1.63)1130.77 (0.43–1.37)
Ptrend0.270.540.850.33
 log22031.10 (0.89–1.35)2031.09 (0.88–1.34)2030.98 (0.64–1.50)2030.98 (0.85–1.14)
Low (n = 167,236)
 Q1641.00541.00641.00661.00
 Q2770.78 (0.56–1.11)850.91 (0.64–1.29)850.88 (0.63–1.23)661.19 (0.82–1.72)
 Q31170.96 (0.69–1.34)1060.91 (0.64–1.28)1150.95 (0.68–1.32)1051.45 (1.00–2.10)
 Q41470.91 (0.63–1.31)1601.01 (0.70–1.45)1400.96 (0.67–1.38)1681.39 (0.93–2.09)
Ptrend0.990.80.970.11
 log24051.00 (0.89–1.12)4050.99 (0.89–1.09)4041.10 (0.82–1.47)4051.01 (0.91–1.12)

CWorked in foundries, electroplating, refinery, dye production, rubber industry, textile dying, fiber preparation or weaving, leather and tanning industry, turning/metal engineering, welding shop, as asphalt worker, as truck driver, as bus/taxi driver, as welder, as hairdresser, as gasoline station worker, and as car repair worker.

  • aThe Cox regression model stratified by age at recruitment, sex, and center and adjusted for educational level, BMI, smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes per day), time since quitting or duration of smoking, and total energy intake.

  • bIncluding fresh and processed meat.