Table 1.

Adjusted HRs for full cohort and prognostically high- and low-risk bladder cancer by quartiles of heme iron and red meat intake, ENOC, and NDMAa

 Heme ironbRed meat intakec (fresh and processed meat)ENOCdNDMAe
CasesHRCasesHRCasesHRCasesHR
Full cohort (n = 481,419)
 Q11711.001441.001571.001651.00
 Q22191.04 (0.84–1.28)2331.20 (0.96–1.49)2141.05 (0.84–1.30)1901.14 (0.91–1.42)
 Q32681.09 (0.88–1.35)2691.14 (0.91–1.42)2741.12 (0.90–1.39)2261.07 (0.85–1.34)
 Q43431.10 (0.88–1.39)3551.15 (0.90–1.45)3541.12 (0.89–1.42)4201.12 (0.88–1.44)
Ptrend0.390.490.300.49
 log21,0011.05 (0.99–1.12)1,0011.06 (0.99–1.13)999f1.09 (0.92–1.30)1,0010.98 (0.92–1.05)
High riskg
 Q1721.00641.00671.00891.00
 Q21111.16 (0.86–1.56)1111.16 (0.86–1.58)1131.15 (0.85–1.55)971.11 (0.83–1.49)
 Q31401.19 (0.88–1.59)1371.13 (0.84–1.53)1441.18 (0.87–1.59)1131.03 (0.76–1.40)
 Q41611.00 (0.73–1.37)1721.05 (0.76–1.44)1601.00 (0.73–1.37)1850.99 (0.72–1.36)
Ptrend0.880.150.920.98
 log24841.07 (0.97–1.19)4841.09 (0.98–1.21)4840.95 (0.73–1.22)4841.00 (0.91–1.10)
Low riskg
 Q1771.00641.00731.00691.00
 Q21101.04 (0.77–1.40)1121.19 (0.87–1.62)1000.95 (0.70–1.29)871.11 (0.81–1.53)
 Q31120.92 (0.68–1.25)1201.07 (0.78–1.47)1180.92 (0.67–1.25)1051.04 (0.75–1.44)
 Q41721.10 (0.81–1.51)1751.16 (0.84–1.61)1791.04 (0.76–1.43)2101.16 (0.83–1.63)
Ptrend0.220.280.370.16
 log24711.05 (0.95–1.15)4711.06 (0.96–1.17)470h1.24 (0.96–1.59)4710.99 (0.90–1.09)
  • aThe Cox regression model stratified by age at recruitment, sex, and center and adjusted for educational level, BMI (as continuous variable), smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes per day), time since quitting or duration of smoking, and total energy intake.

  • bHeme iron (mg/d): Q1, 0–<0.6; Q2, >0.6–<1.02; Q3, >1.02–<1.53; Q4, >1.53–4.

  • cRed meat intake (g/d): Q1, 0–57.86; Q2, 57.86–91.42; Q3, 91.42–130.63; Q4, 130.63–754.79.

  • dENOC (μg/d): Q1, 40.52; Q2, 62.91–78.27; Q3, 78.27–98.45; Q4, 98.46–201.41.

  • eNDMA (μg/d): Q1, 0–0.05; Q2, 0.05–0.1; Q3, 0.10–0.19; Q4, 0.19–21.11.

  • fTwo missing values for ENOC.

  • gExcludes 46 cases that could not be classified into prognostically high- or low-risk bladder cancer.

  • hOne missing value for ENOC.