Table 4.

Interaction between genetic variants in the TGF-β signaling pathway and lifestyle factors and risk of colon and rectal cancer

Controls, nCases, nORa95% CIControls, nCases, nORa95% CI
Colon cancerNever smoker/Former smokerRecent smoker
TGFβ1 rs4803455
 CC4222741.0096661.040.74–1.48
 CA8156501.251.04–1.501801551.311.01–1.71
 AA3633061.331.07–1.6568942.091.47–2.96
Pinteraction0.05
TGFβR1 rs10733710
 GG1,0047751.002231780.990.79–1.24
 GA/AA5864520.990.85–1.161201381.461.12–1.90
Pinteraction0.03
TGFβR1 rs1571590
 AA1,0537971.002062071.291.04–1.60
 AG5053760.990.84–1.171251011.04(0.78–1.37)
 GG51621.631.10–2.3715100.880.39–1.98
Pinteraction0.05
Rectal cancer
TGFβ1 rs1800469
 GG3852951.0080610.970.67–1.40
 GA/AA4193050.930.75–1.1569871.581.11–2.24
Pinteraction0.03
Colon cancerNo recent aspirin/NSAID useRecent aspirin NSAID use
TGFβR1 rs6478974
 TT3293131.002021600.830.64–1.07
 TA5545020.950.78–1.164012230.590.47–0.74
 AA2532381.010.79–1.282011010.540.40–0.71
Pinteraction0.03
Smad3 rs3743343
 TT6635671.004622910.730.61–0.88
 TC4024011.150.96–1.382951770.700.56–0.87
 CC70851.431.02–2.0047180.450.26–0.78
Pinteraction0.02
Smad3 rs7173811
 CC3232631.002281470.790.61–1.03
 CT5495201.150.94–1.413782350.770.61–0.96
 TT2642701.240.98–1.571981040.630.47–0.85
Pinteraction0.03
Rectal cancer
Smad3 rs3743343
 TT2722681.002451370.570.44–0.75
 TC2051730.840.65–1.101561050.69(0.51–0.93)
 CC44360.810.50–1.3027291.030.59–1.80
Pinteraction0.01
Smad3 rs7163381c
 GG2682291.002061510.870.66–1.14
 GA2191981.040.80–1.35176960.630.46–0.86
 AA34501.651.02–2.6746240.580.34–0.99
Pinteraction0.01
Colon cancerNo recent estrogen exposureRecent estrogen exposure
TGFβ1 rs1800469
 GG2532091.006535790.780.59–1.03
 GA2132001.160.89–1.516124330.620.47–0.82
 AA53390.850.54–1.34141770.470.32–0.68
Pinteraction0.03
Rectal cancer
TGFβ1 rs4803455
 CC40401.002131550.530.32–0.90
 CA84760.890.52–1.533973030.570.34–0.94
 AA45250.540.28–1.051791510.640.38–1.08
Pinteraction0.04
Smad4 rs10502913cMenWomen
 GG3182451.002481971.040.81–1.33
 GA1961741.170.90–1.53144940.860.63–1.17
 AA26321.570.91–2.7225120.640.31–1.30
Pinteraction0.02
  • aAdjusted for age, center, race, and sex.

  • bSimilar association observed for Smad3 rs11071933; Pinteraction = 0.03.

  • cSimilar associations observed for Smad4 rs8096092; Pinteraction = 0.02.