Table 3.

HRs of breast cancer according to tertile of energy-adjusted vitamin D and supplement intakes, quartiles of UVR dose exposure at the region of residence (n = 67,721) E3N cohort 1993 to 2005.

Vitamin D dietary intakes, IU/d
< 8080–113> 113Supplement
UV dose exposure, kJ/m2/dPerson- YearsCasesHRa (CI 95%)Person- YearsCasesHRa (CI 95%)Person- YearscasesHRa (CI 95%)Person- YearsCasesHRa (CI 95%)
Entire population
< 2.458,032230(reference)58,6442480.91 (0.76–1.09)59,1562480.86 (0.72–1.03)7,102300.88 (0.60–1.29)
2.4–2.554,1582030.89 (0.73–1.07)59,2022440.99 (0.82–1.18)57,0532380.92 (0.76–1.10)6,627220.72 (0.47–1.12)
2.5–2.758,2992430.85 (0.71–1.02)57,1892360.88 (0.73–1.05)55,8492320.89 (0.74–1.07)7,517351.00 (0.70–1.43)
> 2.760,2132510.88 (0.74–1.05)53,3402190.91 (0.75–1.09)52,8571690.73 (0.60–0.90)6,285230.63 (0.41–0.96)
Postmenopausal women
< 2.446,809182(reference)44,6921860.86 (0.70–1.06)47,6021910.81 (0.66–0.99)6,807290.87 (0.59–1.28)
2.4–2.542,2501490.81 (0.65–1.02)47,3931930.98 (0.80–1.20)44,5581820.86 (0.70–1.05)6,324210.70 (0.45–1.10)
2.5–2.744,5371830.80 (0.65–1.04)44,3261800.83 (0.68–1.02)45,3201790.83 (0.68–1.02)7,517351.01 (0.71–1.46)
> 2.748,4302010.86 (0.70–1.05)43,3151890.94 (0.77–1.15)43,0441320.68 (0.54–0.85)5,688210.57 (0.36–0.90)
Premenopausal women
< 2.411,22348(reference)13,952621.08 (0.74–1.57)11,554571.05 (0.72–1.55)29510.63 (0.09–4.54)
2.4–2.511,908541.19 (0.81–1.75)11,809510.99 (0.67–1.47)12,495561.15 (0.78–1.69)30310.68 (0.09–4.96)
2.5–2.713,762601.03 (0.70–1.51)12,863561.03 (0.70–1.52)10,529531.13 (0.76–1.66)00-
> 2.711,783500.95 (0.64–1.41)10,025300.71 (0.45–1.12)9,813370.97 (0.63–1.49)59721.57 (0.38–6.44)
  • aAdjusted for menopausal status (time dependent), BMI (<20/20–25/>25 kg/m2), physical activity in 1993 (in Met-h/week; <34/34–46/46–62/>62), age at menopause (<47/47–54/>54 years among postmenopausal women), age at menarche, parity (number of full-term pregnancies), previous use of oral contraceptives (ever/never), use of menopausal hormone therapy (never, current, past, unknown, time-dependent variable, among postmenopausal women only), daily calcium (<868.4/868.4–1,092.5/>1,092.5 mg/day), current use of calcium supplement (yes, no, unknown; time-dependent variable), alcohol intake (g/day), total energy intake without alcohol (kcal/day), university degree (yes/no), previous family history of breast cancer (yes, no), previous personal history of benign breast disease (ever, never, time-dependent variable), previous history of mammographic exam (yes, no, time-dependent variable), sun burn resistance (low, medium, high), skin complexion (very fair, fair, medium, dark, very dark).