Table 3.

Multivariate OR and 95% CI for breast cancer incidence by serum 25(OH)D3 concentration, nested case-control study in the E3N cohort (n = 1,908) stratified by menopausal status at blood collection and diagnosis

Tertile of serum 25(OH)D3 (ng/mL)No. cases/no. controlsOR* (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR§ (95% CI)
All636/1,272
Premenopausal at blood collection and premenopausal at diagnosis
    <19.820/251111
    19.8-2720/310.69 (0.30-1.62)0.55 (0.21-1.42)0.42 (0.15-1.18)0.43 (0.14-1.25)
    >2714/340.41 (0.16-1.08)0.37 (0.14-1.04)0.35 (0.12-1.03)0.37 (0.12-1.15)
    P trend0.070.060.070.11
Premenopausal at blood collection and postmenopausal at diagnosis
    <19.840/611111
    19.8-2722/650.52 (0.27-0.99)0.54 (0.27-1.05)0.50 (0.25-0.99)0.50 (0.25-1.02)
    >2727/540.79 (0.41-1.50)0.76 (0.39-1.50)0.76 (0.38-1.52)0.72 (0.35-1.45)
    P trend0.80.50.50.4
Postmenopausal at blood collection and postmenopausal at diagnosis
    <19.8166/3181111
    19.8-27156/3060.97 (0.74-1.28)0.96 (0.73-1.26)0.96 (0.72-1.27)0.91 (0.69-1.21)
    >27150/3240.88 (0.67-1.16)0.87 (0.66-1.15)0.87 (0.66-1.16)0.80 (0.60-1.07)
    P trend0.30.30.30.12
  • *ORs and CIs from unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age at blood collection, age at menopause, and mean daily UV dose exposure among the 40 centers of blood collection, and season of blood collection (same year).

  • From unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the same variables as in * plus BMI at the time of the blood collection, physical activity, age of menarche, number of children, tobacco status, previous use of oral contraceptives, MHT use (among postmenopausal women only) at blood collection, personal history of mammography, benign breast diseases, and previous family history of breast cancer.

  • From unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the same variables as in †, plus alcohol consumption, total energy intake without alcohol, calcium and dietary vitamin D assessed from the dietary questionnaire, and supplement intakes. In the premenopausal subgroup, supplement intakes were removed due to lack of convergence (only one case taking vitamin D supplement).

  • §From unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the same variables as in ‡ plus serum calcium, PTH, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations.

  • A separate fourth category for missing values (cases, n = 21; controls, n = 54) was considered; ORs were not significant.