Table 3.

Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) from Cox regression models including asthma and the classes of medications

HR* (95% CI)P
Model 1
    Asthma
        NoReference
        Yes1.18 (0.98-1.43)0.09
Model 2
    Asthma
        NoReference
        Yes1.09 (0.88-1.36)0.43
    Inhaled glucocorticoids
        NoReference
        Yes1.30 (0.92-1.84)0.14
Model 3
    Asthma
        NoReference
        Yes1.16 (0.95-1.40)0.14
    Systemic glucocorticoids
        NoReference
        Yes1.64 (1.04-2.59)0.03
Model 4
    Asthma
        NoReference
        Yes1.07 (0.86-1.35)0.54
    Bronchodilators
        NoReference
        Yes1.29 (0.95-1.76)0.11
Model 5
    Asthma
        NoReference
        Yes1.19 (0.98-1.44)0.08
    Antihistamines
        NoReference
        Yes0.76 (0.44-1.31)0.32

NOTE: Medication information was derived from a medication audit done at baseline. These analyses were based on 13,965 men that completed the medication audit.

  • *Estimates were obtained using Cox regression models with age as time metric adjusted for country of birth, each model including variables for both asthma and the given drug class.

  • Wald test.