Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the 16,936 men participating in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study by outcome status

Prostate cancer cases*Noncases
Nonaggressive (n = 840)Aggressive (n = 329)(n=15,755)
No. (%)No. (%)No. (%)
Age at baseline (years)
    <50107 (13)22 (7)5,049 (32)
    50-59290 (35)99 (30)4,890 (31)
    ≥60443 (52)208 (63)5,816 (37)
Country of birth
    Australia/New Zealand608 (72)238 (72)10,223 (65)
    United Kingdom74 (9)22 (7)1,298 (8)
    Italy90 (11)49 (15)2,257 (14)
    Greece68 (8)20 (6)1,977 (13)
Asthma
    No734 (87)295 (90)14,116 (90)
    Yes106 (13)34 (10)1,639 (10)
    Medications, no30 (29)8 (24)536 (33)
    Medications, yes73 (71)25 (76)1,075 (67)
    Age at diagnosis ≤32 y42 (41)15 (45)811 (51)
    Age at diagnosis >32 y60 (59)18 (55)779 (49)
Medications (from drug audit)§
    Inhaled glucocorticoids
        No682 (96)271 (94)12,581 (97)
        Yes27 (4)18 (6)377 (3)
    Systemic glucocorticoids
        No696 (98)283 (98)12,829 (99)
        Yes13 (2)6 (2)129 (1)
    Antihistamines
        No698 (98)287 (99)12,756 (98)
        Yes11 (2)2 (1)202 (2)
    Bronchodilators
        No668 (94)270 (93)12,390 (96)
        Yes41 (6)19 (7)568 (4)
  • *A tumor was classified as aggressive if Gleason score was >7 or stage was advanced (T4 or N+ or M+). Deaths attributed to prostate cancer were also classified as aggressive. We were not able to define aggressiveness for six cases because Gleason score and tumor stage were not available.

  • In subjects reporting history of asthma; information was missing for 32 men.

  • In subjects reporting a history of asthma; information was missing for 54 men. This variable was categorized using the median value of age at diagnosis of asthma in the full cohort (32 years) as cutoff value.

  • §A total of 2,969 subjects did not complete the medication audit. Systemic glucocorticoids include mainly glucocorticoids administered as tablets or injections.