Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of case and cohort control subjects (median and interdecile range or number, and proportion)

CharacteristicsCases (n = 187)Controls (n = 374)P*
Age (y)66 (59.0-72.0)66 (58.0-72.0)0.82
Sex, male, n (%)121 (64.7)242 (64.7)0.96
Serum IGF-I (ng/mL)184.7 (105.4-274.0)175.8 (95.2-271.4)0.50
Serum IGF-II (ng/mL)1,618.8 (1,151.0-2,228.0)1,641.9 (1,154.7-2,179.9)0.43
Serum IGFBP-3 (ng/mL)3,564.3 (2,644.4-4,993.4)3,700.0 (2,544.8-4,883.5)0.43
Race, n (%)
    White169 (90.4)338 (90.4)0.99
    Black6 (3.2)12 (3.2)
    Hispanic3 (1.6)6 (1.6)
    Asian9 (4.8)18 (4.8)
Smoking status, n (%)
    Never72 (38.5)174 (46.5)0.0002
    Former79 (42.3)174 (46.5)
        Former quit ≥15 y48 (25.7)112 (29.9)
        Former quit <15 y31 (16.6)62 (16.6)
    Current36 (19.3)26 (7.0)
Height (cm)
    Male177.8 (167.6-185.4)177.8 (170.2-185.4)0.74
    Female162.6 (152.4-170.2)162.6 (154.9-170.2)0.69
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 (22.3-32.7)26.5 (22.0-32.9)0.18
WHO cut points, n (%)
    <25.057 (30.5)133 (35.6)0.29
    >25.0 to <3084 (44.9)168 (44.9)
    ≥3046 (24.6)73 (19.5)
Medical history, n (%)
    Self-reported diabetes mellitus22 (12.2)36 (9.9)0.41
Family history of pancreatic cancer, n (%)7 (3.76)8 (2.15)0.27
Education, n (%)
    Less than high school14 (7.5)39 (10.4)0.64
    High school graduate48 (25.7)86 (23.0)
    Post–high school, vocational training22 (11.8)41 (11.0)
    Some college38 (20.3)67 (17.9)
    College graduate37 (19.8)65 (17.4)
    Post-college graduate28 (15.0)76 (20.3)
Dietary intake per day
    Red meat (g)55.8 (16.3-149.2)61.3 (19.4-165.7)0.79
    Alcohol (g)
        0-2 drinks163 (90.1)326 (91.0)0.87
        3-5 drinks14 (7.7)25 (7.0)
        ≥6 drinks4 (2.2)7 (2.0)
Nutrients
    Energy (kcal)1,819 (1,074-2,957)1,976 (1,130-3,298)0.16
    Total fat (g)61.3 (28.1-100.3)73.1 (33.1-116.2)0.22
    Saturated fat (g)20.4 (9.8-33.8)21.0 (10.8-40.9)0.20
    Carbohydrate (g)247.5 (131.2-389.4)265.8 (157.4-423.6)0.07
    Protein (g)72.9 (42.0-126.4)77.3 (45.0-128.9)0.16
Vigorous physical activity, h/wk, n (%)
    None or <1 h66 (38.2)113 (32.1)
    1-3 h70 (40.5)146 (41.5)
    >4 h37 (21.4)93 (26.4)0.18

Abbreviation: BMI, Body mass index.

  • *P-values for categorical variables based on χ2 or Fisher's exact test, and P-values for continuous variables based on Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  • All foods and nutrients were energy adjusted, except for supplements and alcohol, and based on n = 181 cases and 358 controls.

  • Vigorous activity variables based on n = 173 cases and n = 352 controls.