Table 4.

Adjusted continuous HRs and 95% CI for lung cancer and histologic subgroups of lung cancer per two products increment for DDSvegfr, DDSvegpr, and DDSfr and per one product group increment for DDSveggr

Full cohort (n = 445,923)*Current smokers (n = 100,488)Former smokers (n = 120,064)Never smokers (n = 225,371)
CasesHR (95% CI)CasesHR (95% CI)CasesHR (95% CI)CasesHR (95% CI)
DDS vegetable and fruit products
    Lung cancer1,6070.99 (0.97-1.01)1,0210.97 (0.95-1.00)4191.01 (0.96-1.05)1671.00 (0.96-1.05)
    Adenocarcinomas5421.00 (0.97-1.04)3020.99 (0.93-1.05)1501.02 (0.95-1.10)901.02 (0.96-1.08)
    Small cell carcinomas2581.01 (0.95-1.07)2151.00 (0.94-1.07)421.02 (0.89-1.17)1
    Squamous cell carcinomas3280.91 (0.86-0.96)2240.88 (0.82-0.95)940.98 (0.88-1.08)10
DDS vegetable subgroups
    Lung cancer1,6070.96 (0.93-1.00)1,0210.96 (0.92-1.01)4190.95 (0.88-1.03)1670.99 (0.89-1.10)
    Adenocarcinomas5420.97 (0.91-1.04)3020.97 (0.89-1.06)1500.95 (0.83-1.08)901.05 (0.90-1.24)
    Small cell carcinomas2580.97 (0.88-1.06)2150.96 (0.87-1.07)420.91 (0.71-1.17)1
    Squamous cell carcinomas3280.87 (0.80-0.95)2240.88 (0.79-0.97)940.87 (0.74-1.02)10
DDS vegetable products
    Lung cancer1,6070.99 (0.96-1.02)1,0210.98 (0.94-1.02)4190.99 (0.93-1.06)1671.00 (0.94-1.07)
    Adenocarcinomas5421.03 (0.97-1.08)3021.03 (0.95-1.12)1501.04 (0.94-1.16)901.02 (0.93-1.13)
    Small cell carcinomas2580.99 (0.91-1.07)2150.98 (0.90-1.08)420.97 (0.81-1.18)1
    Squamous cell carcinomas3280.88 (0.82-0.95)2240.87 (0.79-0.96)940.92 (0.81-1.05)10
DDS fruit products
    Lung cancer1,6070.98 (0.94-1.02)1,0210.94 (0.89-1.00)4191.05 (0.96-1.15)1671.02 (0.93-1.12)
    Adenocarcinomas5420.96 (0.89-1.03)3020.90 (0.81-1.01)1500.99 (0.86-1.15)901.03 (0.90-1.17)
    Small cell carcinomas2581.06 (0.94-1.18)2151.04 (0.91-1.18)421.16 (0.87-1.55)1
    Squamous cell carcinomas3280.90 (0.80-1.01)2240.84 (0.72-0.97)941.11 (0.89-1.37)10

NOTE: Cox regression model stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and center and adjusted for duration of smoking, lifetime number of cigarettes, current number of cigarettes, body mass index, and energy intake from fat and nonfat sources.

  • *Cox regression model additionally adjusted for smoking status.

  • Cox regression model additionally adjusted for fruit consumption.

  • Cox regression model additionally adjusted for vegetable consumption.