Table 3.

Adjusted HRs and 95% CI for lung cancer by quartiles of the four different diversity scores for the full cohort and by smoking status (the EPIC cohort study)

RangeFull cohort (n = 445,923)*Current smokers (n = 100,488)Former smokers (n = 120,064)Never smokers (n = 225,371)
Lung cancerHR (95% CI)Lung cancerHR (95% CI)Lung cancerHR (95% CI)Lung cancerHR (95% CI)
DDS vegetable and fruit products
    Q10-1050713861821391
    Q211-154380.91 (0.79-1.04)2790.82 (0.69-0.98)1271.26 (0.93-1.72)321.07 (0.62-1.86)
    Q316-224650.94 (0.80-1.10)2760.85 (0.70-1.04)1441.22 (0.87-1.71)451.08 (0.62-1.87)
    Q423-401970.96 (0.75-1.21)800.83 (0.59-1.16)661.43 (0.89-2.29)511.06 (0.61-1.85)
    P trend0.650.160.350.89
    Continuous per two products increment0.99 (0.97-1.01)0.97 (0.95-1.00)1.01 (0.96-1.05)1.00 (0.96-1.05)
DDS vegetable subgroups
    Q10-438012641801361
    Q25-65450.92 (0.80-1.06)3590.91 (0.77-1.09)1290.81 (0.60-1.10)571.43 (0.87-2.36)
    Q373580.86 (0.73-1.02)2150.89 (0.72-1.11)930.80 (0.56-1.14)501.04 (0.61-1.76)
    Q483240.77 (0.64-0.94)1830.73 (0.57-0.93)1170.86 (0.59-1.26)240.81 (0.42-1.59)
    P trend0.020.040.700.90
    Continuous per 1 product group increment0.96 (0.93-1.00)0.96 (0.92-1.01)0.95 (0.88-1.03)0.99 (0.89-1.10)
DDS vegetable products
    Q10-643613121851391
    Q27-104750.96 (0.84-1.11)3190.93 (0.78-1.10)1150.91 (0.67-1.23)411.41 (0.83-2.39)
    Q311-154880.90 (0.77-1.05)3090.88 (0.72-1.07)1430.94 (0.68-1.31)360.82 (0.47-1.43)
    Q416-262080.94 (0.74-1.18)810.77 (0.55-1.08)761.09 (0.70-1.69)511.15 (0.66-1.98)
    P trend0.310.110.610.89
    Continuous per two products increment0.99 (0.96-1.02)0.98 (0.94-1.02)0.99 (0.93-1.06)1.00 (0.94-1.07)
DDS fruit products
    Q10-249313681961291
    Q23-55670.97 (0.85-1.10)3600.92 (0.79-1.08)1551.09 (0.83-1.44)521.26 (0.74-2.12)
    Q36-83350.92 (0.78-1.10)1920.87 (0.70-1.08)1121.22 (0.87-1.71)310.87 (0.48-1.56)
    Q49-142120.94 (0.76-1.17)1010.91 (0.68-1.23)561.14 (0.74-1.78)551.12 (0.66-1.91)
    P trend0.420.240.200.95
    Continuous per two products increment0.98 (0.94-1.02)0.94 (0.89-1.00)1.05 (0.96-1.15)1.02 (0.93-1.12)

NOTE: Cox regression model stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and center and adjusted for duration of smoking, lifetime number of cigarettes, current number of cigarettes, body mass index, and energy intake from fat and nonfat sources.

  • *Cox regression model additionally adjusted for smoking status.

  • Cox regression model additionally adjusted for fruit consumption.

  • Cox regression model additionally adjusted for vegetable consumption.