Table 2.

Baseline characteristics by quartiles of observed variety in total vegetable and fruit consumption (DDSvegfr) as mean (standard deviation) except otherwise stated (the EPIC Cohort Study)

Full cohortDDSvegfr
1234
Number of different items eaten at least once in 2 wk (range)0-1011-1516-2223-40
General characteristics
Men (%)2933373314
Age at recruitment (y)51 (9.9)50 (8.7)52 (9.2)52 (10.6)50 (10.7)
Height (cm)165.8 (8.9)167.2 (8.8)166.2 (9.3)165.7 (9.3)164.1 (7.8)
Weight (kg)70.1 (13.7)71.3 (13.9)72.5 (13.5)71.3 (13.4)64.9 (12.4)
BMI (kg/m2)25.4 (4.3)25.4 (4.2)26.2 (4.3)25.9 (4.3)24.0 (4.0)
Physically active (%)*4341424444
Diet
Energy (kcal/d)2,077.8 (621.1)1,907.5 (615.8)2,079.3 (626.1)2,153.0 (614.6)2,181.1 (588.9)
Energy from fat sources (kcal/d)744.2 (272.7)680.4 (262.7)738.2 (263.0)777.9 (267.6)782.9 (284.8)
Energy from nonfat sources (kcal/d)1,333.6 (408.3)1,227.1 (402.2)1,341.2 (415.8)1,375.1 (414.5)1,398.1 (376.4)
Consumption of vegetables (g/d)214.2 (147.8)134.7 (109.9)174.8 (107.1)234.8 (134.7)316.9 (165.0)
Consumption of fruit (g/d)241.4 (197.1)148.3 (135.1)213.4 (170.5)288.2 (203.3318.6 (222.4)
Alcohol nonconsumers (%)710952
Alcohol consumption (g/d)6.44.67.47.26.7
Red and processed meat (g/d)75.8 (51.5)75.2 (50.6)86.1 (52.5)78.0 (50.8)64.3 (50.2)
Smoking status (%)
Never smokers5046454862
Former smokers2726282825
    Lifetime number of cigarettes (cigarettes/d)9.4 (9.8)8.2 (9.4)10.8 (9.5)11.1 (9.9)7.3 (9.7)
Current smokers2227262312
    Lifetime number of cigarettes (cigarettes/d)10.9 (8.5)10.6 (8.6)12.0 (7.9)11.6 (8.4)8.1 (9.1)
    Smoke duration (y)29.3 (10.9)29.9 (9.8)30.4 (10.5)29.3 (11.5)25.7 (11.9)
Unknown12111
Educational level (%)
None44851
Primary school2328292410
Technical/professional school2326262513
Secondary school2422182333
University degree2420192137
Not specified20136

Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • *The Cambridge Physical Activity Index incorporates occupational and nonoccupational physical activity.

  • Median consumption of alcohol excluding nonconsumers.