Table 1.

Demographic characteristics of studied groups

HVHCHCC
Subjects (n)362730
Age (mean ± SD)48.75 ± 10.9751.67 ± 11.2553.0 ± 12.40
Sex (male/female)24/1218/926/4
Current smokers738
Ex-smokers020
AFP > 400 μg/L (n)14

NOTE: If subjects have abstained from smoking for no longer than a week before their breath air was collected, they were considered as current smokers.

Abbreviations: HV, healthy volunteers; HC, hepatocirrhosis; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.