Table 2.

Characteristics of 746 breast cancer survivors in the Health, Eating, Activity, Lifestyle study by quartiles of HEI-2005 scores

Postdiagnosis diet qualityP*
HEI-2005 quartile 1 (35-57) “Poor”HEI-2005 quartile 2 (57-67) “Mixed”HEI-2005 quartile 3 (67-75) “Mixed”HEI-2005 quartile 4 (75-87) “Better”
No. (%)No. (%)No. (%)No. (%)
Number of participants186187187186
Age
    Mean (SE)55.7 (0.7)58.1 (0.8)57.7 (0.7)60.1 (0.8)<0.0001
Race/Ethnicity<0.0001
    White, non-Hispanic86 (46)102 (55)126 (67)134 (72)
    Hispanic29 (16)24 (13)17 (9)1 (6)
    Black, non-Hispanic67 (36)55 (29)39 (21)35 (19)
    American Indian, Asian, Other4 (2)6 (3)5 (3)6 (3)
Recruitment site0.001
    Western Washington39 (21)40 (21)43 (23)44 (24)
    New Mexico80 (43)93 (50)105 (56)107 (58)
    Los Angeles County, California67 (36)54 (29)39 (21)35 (19)
Menopausal status0.01
    Premenopausal65 (35)62 (33)63 (34)54 (29)
    Postmenopausal106 (57)116 (62)114 (61)128 (69)
    Unknown15 (8)9 (5)10 (5)4 (2)
Treatment0.69
    Surgery only65 (35)59 (32)54 (29)58 (31)
    + Radiation71 (38)68 (36)74 (40)72 (39)
    + Chemotherapy20 (11)16 (9)19 (10)18 (10)
    + Radiation and chemotherapy30 (16)44 (24)40 (21)38 (20)
Stage
    In situ50 (27)41 (22)46 (25)39 (21)
    Localized97 (52)108 (58)97 (52)103 (55)
    Regional39 (21)38 (20)44 (24)44 (24)
Current tamoxifen use0.14
    No111 (60)106 (57)104 (56)97 (52)
    Yes75 (40)81 (43)83 (44)89 (48)
Estrogen receptor status0.33
    Positive94 (51)105 (56)106 (57)113 (61)
    Negative31 (17)35 (19)29 (16)22 (12)
HEI-2005 score (100 points possible)
    Mean (SE)50.3 (0.4)62.6 (0.2)70.8 (0.2)79.0 (0.2)<0.0001
Energy/day (kcal)
    Mean (SE)1,723 (87)1,514 (50)1,396 (45)1,256 (34)<0.0001
Fruit (c eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)0.5 (0.03)0.9 (0.04)1.2 (0.06)1.7 (0.06)<0.0001
Whole fruit (c eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)0.3 (0.02)0.6 (0.03)0.8 (0.05)1.2 (0.06)<0.0001
Vegetables (c eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)0.8 (0.03)1.0 (0.05)1.1 (0.03)1.3 (0.04)<0.0001
Dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, and legumes (c eq/1,000 kcal)§
    Mean (SE)0.1 (0.01)0.2 (0.03)0.2 (0.01)0.3 (0.01)<0.0001
Total grains (oz eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)2.5 (0.07)2.7 (0.07)2.8 (0.07)2.9 (0.06)0.0002
Whole grains (oz eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)0.4 (0.03)0.6 (0.03)0.7 (0.04)0.9 (0.04)<0.0001
Meat and beans (oz eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)3.0 (0.09)3.0 (0.08)3.0 (0.07)2.9 (0.07)0.38
Oils (g/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)9.6 (0.35)11.1 (0.36)11.5 (0.37)11.2 (0.40)0.003
Milk (c eq/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)0.7 (0.03)0.9 (0.04)0.9 (0.05)1.0 (0.05)<0.0001
Sodium (g/1,000 kcal)
    Mean (SE)1.5 (0.02)1.7 (0.02)1.6 (0.02)1.7 (0.02)<0.0001
Percent calories from saturated fat
    Mean (SE)14.1 (0.24)12.4 (0.18)10.6 (0.16)8.6 (0.14)<0.0001
Percent discretionary calories from solid fat, alcoholic beverages, and added sugars
    Mean (SE)40.5 (0.55)31.9 (0.40)27.1 (0.33)20.8 (0.33)<0.0001
MET-hours/week of postdiagnosis recreational physical activity
    Mean (SE)8.5 (1.0)11.4 (1.1)13.4 (1.2)18.1 (1.8)<0.0001
BMI
    Mean (SE)28.6 (0.5)28.9 (0.5)27.4 (0.4)26.6 (0.4)0.003
Current smoker37 (20)22 (12)21 (11)13 (7)0.003
Current use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs78 (42)56 (30)71 (38)78 (42)1.00
  • *P values are for likelihood ratio χ2tests contrasting means (continuous variables) and percentages (categorical variables) for women with a better quality diet compared with those with a poor-quality diet.

  • At 30-month assessment.

  • Confirmed positive/negative status for 535 participants.

  • §Includes legumes only after meat and beans standard has been met.

  • Includes legumes only if meat and beans standard is otherwise not met.