Table 1.

Constructs and measures

Mean S.E. (Standard error)Pseudo-R2*Overall P
Knowledge72% (14.43)12%<0.01
    Cronbach's α = 0.70; seven items(0.8%; 16)
    Response options true/false (T/F) or multiple choice
        1. Which of the following health issues are related to HPV?
        2. How do you think HPV is transmitted or spread?
        3. How can HPV infection be prevented?
        4. HPV affects only women (T/F)
        5. HPV can occur without symptoms (T/F)
        6. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States (T/F)
        7. A Pap smear can detect the HPV virus (T/F)
General vaccine attitudes§12.5128%<0.01
    Cronbach's α = 0.76; four items(0.27)
    Response options very effective to not at all effective
        1. Vaccinating my children against diseases that can be spread person-to-person is important
        2. If there was a vaccine that prevented the common cold, I would want my daughter(s) to get vaccinated
        3. If there were a vaccine that prevented cancer, I would want my daughter(s) to get vaccinated
        4. I believe that vaccines should be required for contagious disease that can be spread person-to-person.
Beliefs about HPV vaccine
Vaccine efficacy0.54 (0.14)
    Cronbach's α = 0.67; three items
    Response options very effective to not at all effective
        In your opinion, how effective is the HPV vaccine in preventing…
            1. HPV infection0.27 (0.06)Not fit
            2. Genital warts−0.11 (0.06)4%0.01
            3. Cervical cancer0.38 (0.05)Not fit
Vaccine safety§8.91 (0.17)
    Cronbach's α = 0.68; four items
    Response options strongly agree to strongly disagree
        1. Potential side effects of the HPV vaccine would prevent me from getting my daughter(s) vaccinated against HPV2.01 (0.06)14%<0.01
        2. I think that vaccines are well tested before being made available to the public.2.48 (0.07)18%<0.01
        3. In your opinion, how safe is the HPV vaccine?2.30 (0.06)Not fit
        4. In your opinion, how likely is it that the HPV vaccine causes health problems?2.14 (0.06)13%<0.01
Potential barriers to vaccination
    Cost
    One item
    Response options very expensive to not very expensive1.91 (0.09)7%0.01
        1. In your opinion, how expensive do you think it would be to get the HPV vaccine?
Beliefs about adverse behavioral consequences
    Cronbach's α = 0.88; two items
    Response options strongly agree to strongly disagree2.39 (0.17)24%<0.01
    Vaccinating my daughter(s) would send a message that…
            1. It is okay to have sex
            2. She doesn't have to use safe sex practices
Trust in provider recommendation
    Response options strongly agree to disagree
        I trust the medical recommendations of my daughter's primary health care provider.3.45 (0.05)7%<0.01
Trust in pharmaceutical industry
    Response options very confident to not very confident
        How confident are you that the pharmaceutical company that produces the HPV vaccine is trustworthy?3.10 (0.05)17%<0.01
Social influences
    Response options strongly approve/influences to strongly disapprove/does not influence at all
Subjective norms/family and friend endorsement
    Cronbach's α = 0.84; eight items1.79 (0.57)42%<0.01
        Thinking about each of the following individuals or groups, how much would they approve or disapprove of your daughter(s) getting the HPV vaccine?
            1. Spouse/partner
            2. Daughter
            3. Family
            4. Friends
        Thinking about each of the following individuals or groups, how much does the opinion of the following individuals or groups influence your decision about getting your daughter vaccinated against HPV?
            1. Spouse/partner
            2. Daughter
            3. Family
            4. Friends
Provider endorsement1.99 (0.15)26%<0.01
    Thinking about your daughter's health-care provider, how much would he/she approve or disapprove of your daughter getting the HPV vaccine?
    Thinking about your daughter's health care provider, how much does his/her opinion influence your decision about getting your daughter vaccinated against HPV?

NOTE: Results labeled “Not fit” were not fit due to lack of variability in responses.

  • *Psuedo-R2 is from an unadjusted multinomial logistic regression model with stage as the outcome model.

  • Overall univariate P value is from an unadjusted test of whether the item has any relationship with the outcome from a multinomial logistic regression model with decisional status as the outcome.

  • Items were developed based on the HPV “CDC Fact Sheet” (38).

  • §Informed by research on general attitudes toward vaccines (16, 39-41).

  • Adapted from Zimet et al. (40) and Ramirez et al. (42).

  • Adapted from Zimet et al. (40).