Table 1.

Elevated plasma cytokine levels from women with persistent HPV infection

HPV−*HPV+
IL-6
    n5050
    Responders (%)5096
    Mean206.1715.5
    Median14.5393.1
    Range8.0-3,202.58.0-3,338.0
    P<0.0001
IL-8
    n5050
    Responders (%)96100
    Mean392.51,545.7
    Median43.91,128.5
    Range1.6-3,615.817.8-7,535.2
    P<0.0001
IL-1α
    n5050
    Responders (%)100100
    Mean244.8328.5
    Median169.5218.2
    Range52.4-2,714.857.6-2,113.9
    P0.02
GM-CSF
    n5050
    Responders (%)100100
    Mean14.533.6
    Median7.313.8
    Range2.1-293.54.4-886.4
    P<0.0001
TNF-α
    n5050
    Responders (%)96100
    Mean61.4189.1
    Median9.2164.1
    Range0.8-833.612.3-608.1
    P<0.0001
MIP-1α
    n5050
    Responders (%)54100
    Mean576.02,164.9
    Median25.51,368.9
    Range8.0-10,097.217.9-10,097.2
    P<0.0001
IL-1β
    n5050
    Responders (%)4884
    Mean6.623.6
    Median1.68.3
    Range1.6-73.91.6-536.5
    P<0.0001
  • *HPV− women (controls) were negative for any HPV type at follow-up (5-6 y after enrollment) and final visit (9 y after enrollment).

  • HPV+ women (cases) tested positive on at least the follow-up visit (5-6 y after enrollment) and final visit (9 y after enrollment) for a type-specific HPV infection.

  • The P value was calculated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare cytokine values between cases and controls.