Table 1.

Results of statistical analyses for all outcome measures

MeasureConditionTimeCondition × time
F (P)F (P)F (P)
Heart rate*13.5 (>0.001)62.0 (>0.001)16.1 (>0.001)
Plasma nicotine*112.2 (>0.001)53.0 (>0.001)45.2 (>0.001)
Carbon monoxide105.5 (>0.001)107.0 (>0.001)205.5 (>0.001)
Hughes and Hatsukami*
    Anxious4.8 (0.01)5.7 (>0.001)1.8 (0.05)
    Craving a cigarette37.7 (>0.001)25.7 (>0.001)10.6 (>0.001)
    Depression/feeling blue0.5 (ns)1.5 (ns)1.1 (ns)
    Difficulty concentrating0.5 (ns)3.4 (0.02)0.8 (ns)
    Drowsy0.6 (ns)3.9 (0.007)1.6 (ns)
    Hunger2.6 (ns)7.8 (>0.001)1.8 (ns)
    Impatient4.3 (0.009)3.7 (0.006)2.5 (0.005)
    Irritability/frustration/anger5.8 (0.004)2.3 (ns)3.3 (0.001)
    Restless1.5 (ns)2.5 (0.05)1.9 (0.025)
    Desire for sweets1.7 (ns)1.7 (ns)1.7 (ns)
    Urge to smoke40.8 (>0.001)28.2 (>0.001)9.7 (>0.001)
QSU*
    Factor 140.6 (>0.001)35.7 (>0.001)16.9 (>0.001)
    Factor 219.5 (>0.001)16.6 (>0.001)7.6 (>0.001)
Direct effects of nicotine*
    Confused1.0 (ns)1.4 (ns)1.4 (ns)
    Dizzy1.5 (ns)5.2 (0.002)4.1 (0.002)
    Headache0.7 (ns)0.9 (ns)1.6 (ns)
    Heart pounding0.4 (ns)2.9 (0.05)1.9 (ns)
    Lightheaded1.2 (ns)7.6 (>0.001)5.8 (>0.001)
    Nausea0.1 (ns)0.8 (ns)1.1 (ns)
    Nervous1.0 (ns)1.0 (ns)1.2 (ns)
    Salivation0.5 (ns)0.2 (ns)1.0 (ns)
    Sweaty0.8 (ns)0.9 (ns)1.3 (ns)
    Weak0.1 (ns)0.8 (ns)1.1 (ns)
Direct effects of tobacco*
    Satisfying76.2 (>0.001)61.6 (>0.001)17.2 (>0.001)
    Pleasant66.5 (>0.001)68.5 (>0.001)17.6 (>0.001)
    Taste good47.7 (>0.001)66.8 (>0.001)14.4 (>0.001)
    Dizzy19.2 (>0.001)17.6 (>0.001)7.2 (>0.001)
    Calm42.0 (>0.001)31.1 (>0.001)10.3 (>0.001)
    Concentrate17.9 (>0.001)15.8 (>0.001)5.5 (>0.001)
    Awake27.0 (>0.001)22.0 (>0.001)6.6 (>0.001)
    Reduce hunger24.2 (>0.001)19.4 (>0.001)5.6 (>0.001)
    Sick3.6 (0.02)3.6 (0.01)0.9 (ns)
    Taste like own brand115.5 (>0.001)60.0 (>0.001)26.9 (>0.001)
    Feel like own brand65.9 (>0.001)67.0 (>0.001)21.6 (>0.001)
    Harsh as own brand64.9 (>0.001)49.2 (>0.001)21.3 (>0.001)
    Mild as own brand62.4 (>0.001)54.0 (>0.001)20.5 (>0.001)
    Smoke another cigarette RIGHT NOW6.5 (>0.001)38.3 (>0.001)4.8 (>0.001)

Abbreviation: ns, nonsignificant.

  • *dfCondition, 3,93; dfTime, 9,279; dfCondxtime, 27,837.

  • dfCondition, 3,93; dfTime, 6,186; dfCondxtime, 18,558.