Table 3.

Distribution of cases of head and neck cancers by anatomic site and of controls, and corresponding ORs and 95% CI according to caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea drinking

Oral cavity/pharynxLarynx
TotalOral cavityOropharynx/hypopharynxNOS
ControlsCasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)ControlsCasesOR (95% CI)
Caffeinated coffee*
    Nondrinkers1,4355421177128418111,2931441
    Drinkers7,4963,2030.84 (0.60–1.18)9530.62 (0.40–0.99)1,7390.82 (0.55–1.23)5110.76 (0.52–1.11)5,8551,0341.04 (0.80–1.36)
    Cups/d
        >0 to <34,6371,8270.88 (0.62–1.25)5380.65 (0.42–1.02)9860.89 (0.60–1.31)3030.82 (0.59–1.15)3,7965681.08 (0.82–1.42)
        3 to 42,0298510.78 (0.49–1.24)2590.52 (0.27–0.98)4650.73 (0.41–1.31)1270.70 (0.45–1.09)1,5273351.12 (0.81–1.55)
        >48305250.61 (0.47–0.80)1560.46 (0.30–0.71)2880.58 (0.41–0.82)810.61 (0.37–1.01)5321310.96 (0.64–1.45)
        Missing971706189209146
        Total9,0283,9151,1912,1126127,2391,224
        P for trend0.01<0.010.02<0.010.82
        P for heterogeneity between studies<0.01<0.010.020.40.11
        For an increment of 1 cup/d0.96 (0.94–0.98)0.96 (0.92–0.99)0.95 (0.93–0.98)0.96 (0.91–1.00)0.99 (0.95–1.04)
Decaffeinated coffee
    Nondrinkers6,1021,845151211,076125716,1029451
    Drinkers8062701.05 (0.85–1.29)891.17 (0.81–1.69)1370.94 (0.72–1.23)441.40 (0.93–2.12)806780.96 (0.41–2.22)
    Cups/d
        >0 to <14041351.03 (0.78–1.34)371.18 (0.67–2.08)730.96 (0.68–1.35)251.59 (0.93–2.71)404381.60 (0.37–6.85)
        ≥14021351.09 (0.83–1.44)521.51 (0.97–2.35)640.94 (0.64–1.37)191.36 (0.77–2.42)402400.84 (0.34–2.06)
        Missing971666187189747
        Total7,0052,2816621,3003197,0051,070
        P for trend0.570.090.780.170.75
        P for heterogeneity between studies0.330.080.130.670.04
        For an increment of 1 cup/d1.03 (0.92–1.15)1.04 (0.87–1.23)1.04 (0.91–1.19)0.91 (0.75–1.11)0.91 (0.75–1.09)
Type of coffee
    Nondrinkers1,004314196118013811,0041051
    Only caffeinated coffee drinkers5,0931,5300.92 (0.57–1.47)4160.77 (0.55–1.09)8950.92 (0.52–1.54)2191.08 (0.69–1.69)5,0938391.15 (0.76–1.75)
    Only decaffeinated coffee drinkers271931.05 (0.64–1.71)301.02 (0.52–2.01)400.87 (0.44–1.73)231.84 (0.95–3.55)271331.86 (0.80–4.35)
    Drinkers of both types5311710.79 (0.51–1.21)550.72 (0.39–1.33)960.80 (0.46–1.38)201.11 (0.54–2.29)531440.92 (0.34–2.53)
    Missing10617365891910649
    Total7,0052,2816621,3003197,0051,070
    P for heterogeneity between studies<0.010.14<0.010.250.02
Tea*
    Nondrinkers4,8502,096160411,182131013,9917791
    Drinkers4,0761,6480.99 (0.89–1.11)5231.06 (0.88–1.27)8410.93 (0.81–1.06)2841.10 (0.88–1.39)3,1553990.97 (0.80–1.18)
    Cups/d
        ≤13,3981,3621.00 (0.89–1.13)4331.10 (0.92–1.33)6960.93 (0.80–1.07)2331.10 (0.87–1.40)2,6703220.90 (0.73–1.10)
        >16782860.94 (0.77–1.16)900.94 (0.68–1.29)1450.92 (0.71–1.18)511.12 (0.74–1.69)485771.48 (1.03–2.14)
        Missing1021716489189346
        Total9,0283,9151,1912,1126127,2391,224
        P for trend0.720.900.360.430.40
        P for heterogeneity between studies0.300.450.230.950.08
        For an increment of 1 cup/d0.99 (0.94–1.04)0.98 (0.91–1.06)0.98 (0.92–1.05)1.02 (0.93–1.12)1.06 (0.97–1.16)

NOTE: Random-effects estimates were used when heterogeneity was detected, and fixed-effects estimates were used otherwise. Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, study, cigarette smoking (pack-years), duration of cigar smoking, duration of pipe smoking, alcohol intake, weight, and vegetable and fruit intake.

  • *Includes nine studies for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (1, 32-39) and seven studies for laryngeal cancer (32-38).

  • Reference category.

  • Includes six studies for both oral cavity and pharynx and laryngeal cancers (32, 34-38).