Table 1.

Demographic characteristics, summary of screening results, and association with VIA positivity (χ2)

Variablen (%)*VIA pos, n (%)P
Age (y)
    25-29659 (28.7)67 (10.17)0.002
    30-34460 (20.0)63 (13.70)
    35-39351 (15.3)45 (12.82)
    40-44256 (11.2)30 (11.72)
    45-49199 (8.7)28 (14.07)
    50-54131 (5.7)18 (13.74)
    55-60106 (4.6)13 (12.26)
    60+133 (5.8)33 (24.81)
Religion
    Hindu2,023 (86.8)251 (12.41)0.046
    Muslim99 (4.3)8 (8.08)
    Christian208 (8.9)38 (18.27)
    Other1 (0.04)0 (0.00)
Education (y)
    None1,606 (69.4)221 (13.76)0.048
    1-8435 (18.8)53 (12.18)
    9+272 (11.8)23 (8.46)
Marital status
    Married2,003 (86.7)242 (12.08)0.028
    Divorced/widowed/separated308 (13.3)51 (16.56)
Cervical inflammation
    Absent1,827 (78.4)178 (9.74)<0.001
    Present504 (21.6)119 (23.61)
Had previous Pap smear
    No 2,233 (95.5)286 (12.87)0.654
    Yes27 (1.2)2 (7.41)
    Don't know79 (3.4)9 (11.39)
Gynecologist seen
    1624 (26.8)24 (3.85)<0.001
    36 (0.3)0 (0.00)
    4734 (31.5)98 (13.35)
    5313 (13.4)97 (30.99)
    6277 (11.9)49 (17.69)
    7253 (10.9)24 (9.49)
    8123 (5.3)5 (4.07)
Pap-inflammation§
    Absent1,471 (63.1)170 (11.56)0.025
    Present860 (36.9)127 (14.77)
Pap smear
    Negative1,987 (85.2)236 (11.88)0.003
    Positive344 (14.8)61 (17.73)
Hybrid capture 2
    Negative2,091 (89.7)258 (12.43)0.085
    Positive240 (10.3)39 (16.25)
CIN2+
    Negative1,950 (99.0)155 (7.95)0.004
    Positive19 (0.96)5 (26.32)
  • *Total numbers do not add to 2,331 because of missing data. Specifically, 36 women missing age, 18 women missing education, 20 women missing marital status, 2 women missing Pap history, 1 woman missing gynecologist seen.

  • Cervical inflammation indicates erythema, edema, or bleeds on contact.

  • Gynecologist no. 2 saw patients only during the pilot phase of the project, which is not reported here.

  • §Inflammation recorded as present if Pap report noted partially or totally obscuring inflammation.

  • Pap smear negative, normal/reactive atypia; positive, ASC-US or more severe diagnosis.

  • Women who were referred but did not attend colpo and women who refused biopsy were excluded (n = 362).