Table 3.

Risk estimates and 95% CIs for the joint effects and interaction indexes between HCV and smoking

HCV−/Tob−HCV−/Tob+HCV+/Tob−HCV+/Tob+Interaction index
AdditiveMultiplicative
All studies (n = 6)
No. of cases19737362200832832
Random effect1.001.50 (1.25-1.80)7.94 (4.40-14.3)23.1 (9.43-56.8)3.32 (2.23-4.94)1.60 (1.16-2.20)
Adjusted random effects*1.001.42 (1.05-1.96)6.90 (1.12-42.7)19.6 (1.55-247.0)3.36 (1.09-10.4)1.83 (1.00-3.34)
Pheterogeneity0.4710.064<0.0010.7550.697
Egger's test for publication bias0.5110.696
  • *Three publications provided adjusted estimates (Hassan et al., 2008, Yu et al., 1991, and Sun, et al., 2003). One of the publication was based on male (Sun, et al., 2003), one is stratified by gender (Hassan et al., 2008), and the other one adjusted for sex (Yu et al., 1991). All three publications adjusted for age. Other adjustments included race, residence (Hassan et al., 2008, and Yu et al., 1991), marital status (Hassan et al., 2008), education, HBV (Hassan et al., 2008 and Sun, et al., 2003), alcohol, diabetes, family history of cancer (Hassan et al., 2008), and family history of HCC (Sun, et al., 2003).