Table 1.

Summary characteristics of the studies selected

Author, yearStudy PeriodCountryAge, yStudy designCaseNo. of caseHBV/HCV markersSmoking definition
For HBV analysis
Hassan, 2008 (18)2000-2006U.S.All agesCase-controlIncident319HBsAg, anti-HBc≥100 cigarettes lifetime
Jee, 2004 (17)1993-2002Korea30-95CohortMortality3,807HBsAgEver-smoker
Wang, 2003 (10)1991-2000Taiwan30-65CohortIncident115HBsAg4 d/wk for a year
Mori, 2000 (16)1992-1997Japan30+CohortIncident22HBsAg≥100 cigarettes lifetime
Goritsas, 1995 (44)1989-1992GreeceAll agesCase-controlIncident/Prevalent51HBsAgEver-smoker
Tzonou, 1991 (45)1976-1984GreeceAll agesCase-controlIncident/Prevalent185HBsAgSmoker or stopped smoking for <3 y
Chen, 1991 (42)1985-1987TaiwanAll agesCase-controlIncident200HBsAg, HBeAgEver-smoker
Tu, 1985 (14)1980-1982China40+CohortMortality70HBsAg, anti-HBcEver-smoker
Lam, 1982 (12)1977-1980Hong KongAll agesCase-controlIncident/Prevalent107HBsAgEver-smoker
For HCV analysis
Hassan, 2008 (18)2000-2006U.S.All agesCase-controlIncident319Third-generation anti-HCV≥100 cigarettes lifetime
Fujita, 2006 (20)1988-1999Japan40-79Nested case-controlMortality94Anti-HCVEver smoker
Sun, 2003 (21)1991-2001Taiwan30-65CohortIncident112Second-generation anti-HCV4 d/wk for a year
Mori, 2000 (16)1992-1997Japan30+CohortIncident22Second-generation anti-HCV≥100 cigarettes lifetime
Yu, 1991 (19)1986-1987TaiwanAll agesCase-controlIncident127Anti-HCVEver-smoker
Tzonou, 1991 (45)1976-1984GreeceAll agesCase-controlIncident/Prevalent185Anti-HCVEver-smoker
HBV or HCV not specified
Franceschi, 2006 (46)1999-2002Italy41-84Case-controlIncident229HBsAg, anti-HCV1 cigarette per day for a year
Yuan, 2004 (25)1984-2001U.S.18-74Case-controlIncident295HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCVSmoker or stopped smoking for <10 y
HBV- and HCV-
Wang, 2009 (27)1996-2004Taiwan35+CohortIncident111HBsAg, anti-HCVSmoker or stopped smoking for <6 mo
Chen, 2008 (26)1991-2004Taiwan30-65CohortIncident291HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HCV4d/wk for a year
Yuan, 2004 (25)1984-2001U.S.18-74Case-controlIncident295HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCVSmoker or stopped smoking for <10 y