Table 2.

Effects of antioxidant micronutrients on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in plasma

Biomarkersn placebo/antioxidants*Placebo, mean (SD)Antioxidants, mean (SD)*Absolute treatment effects, mean (95% CI)Relative treatment effectsP§
IL-6 (pg/mL)22/22
    Baseline1.31 (1.50)1.18 (1.88)
    4 mo2.14 (2.31)1.64 (1.93)−0.16 (−1.15 to 0.83)0.850.75
TNF-α (pg/mL)21/23
    Baseline2.51 (1.54)3.01 (1.80)
    4 mo3.60 (1.73)2.77 (1.61)−1.32 (−2.08 to −0.56)0.640.001
F2-isoprostane (pg/mL)21/23
    Baseline1,970 (688)1,930 (1,740)
    4 mo2,205 (769)2,137 (859)−28 (−912 to 856)0.990.95
CySS (μmol/L/mL)22/23
    Baseline36.8 (22.8)37.1 (20.7)
    4 mo41.8 (14.5)25.8 (13.4)−16.4 (−30.1 to −2.7)0.610.02
  • *The antioxidant cocktail consists of 800 mg dl-α-tocopherol acetate, 24 mg β-carotene, 1.0 g vitamin C, 200 μg l-selenomethionine, 7.2 mg riboflavin, 80 mg niacin, 60 mg zinc, and 5 mg manganese, given daily over 4 mo.

  • Absolute treatment effect is the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the treatment group minus the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the placebo group from mixed model.

  • Relative treatment effect is defined as (treatment group follow-up/treatment group baseline)/(placebo follow-up/placebo baseline). The interpretation of the relative effect is similar to that of an odds ratio (e.g., a relative effect of 2.0 would mean that the relative proportional change in the treatment group was twice as great as that in the placebo group).

  • §P values for baseline to follow-up differences between placebo group and active treatment group from mixed model.

  • Geometric means with SDs are reported, calculated by exponentiating the mean of the log-transformed values.