Table 2.

HR (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer according to category of consumption of soft drinks and juices

None<2 servings/wk≥2 servings/wkPtrend*
Soft drinks
    Mean (servings/d)00.595.11
    Cases (n)1101218
    Person-years492,50893,83662,043
    Age and sex HRs1.00.72 (0.39-1.30)1.83 (1.10-3.04)0.02
    Multivariate HRs1.00.73 (0.40-1.33)1.86 (1.11-3.13)0.02
    Multivariate HRs, BMI and diabetes§1.00.73 (0.40-1.33)1.87 (1.10-3.15)0.02
    Multivariate HRs after excluding first 5 y of follow-up1.00.83 (0.41-1.69)1.94 (1.04-3.63)0.03
    Multivariate HRs after excluding diabetics at baseline1.00.71 (0.38-1.33)1.87 (1.09-3.21)0.02
Juice
    Mean (servings/d)00.654.01
    Cases (n)982715
    Person-years439,002143,06666,319
    Age and sex HRs1.01.07 (0.70-1.64)1.33 (0.77-2.29)0.31
    Multivariate HRs1.01.05 (0.68-1.63)1.32 (0.75-2.30)0.34
    Multivariate HRs, BMI and diabetes§1.01.06 (0.68-1.63)1.31 (0.74-2.30)0.35
    Multivariate HRs after excluding first 5 y of follow-up1.01.07 (0.63-1.83)1.42 (0.73-2.77)0.31
    Multivariate HRs after excluding diabetics at baseline1.01.03 (0.65-1.63)1.35 (0.75-2.42)0.32
  • *Test for trend across categories of exposure based on the medians of the original exposure categories.

  • Adjusted for age (quintiles), sex, ethnicity (Cantonese, Hokkien), and year of interview (1993-1995, 1996-1998).

  • Further adjusted for education (none, primary, secondary), smoking index (never, light, heavy), moderate physical activity (h/wk), alcohol (none, monthly, weekly, daily), added sugar and candy (g/d), and total calories (continuous). Regular soft drinks and juice were mutually adjusted.

  • §Further adjusted for type 2 diabetes mellitus (yes/no) and BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, ≥25).

  • Analysis excluded cases diagnosed during the first 5 years of follow-up. From lowest to highest category, n = 71, 9, and 13 for soft drinks and n = 64, 18, and 11 for juice.

  • Analysis excluded baseline diabetes. From the lowest to highest category, n = 100, 11, and 17 for soft drinks and n = 90, 24, and 14 for juice.