Table 1.

Baseline characteristics according to frequency of soft drink and juice consumption in the Singapore Chinese Health Study

Soft drink consumption
None<2 servings/wk≥2 servings/wk
n45,8468,7895,889
Soft drinks (servings/wk), mean00.595.11
Age at baseline (y)57.1 (8.0)54.4 (7.5)53.2 (7.0)
Sex, female (%)57.755.342.7
BMI (kg/m2)23.1 (3.2)23.2 (3.3)23.4 (3.4)
Smoking, ever (%)30.027.736.6
Smoking, pack-years8.82 (18.3)7.9 (17.3)10.7 (19.7)
Type 2 diabetes* (%)10.44.43.9
Moderate activity (h/wk)0.9 (2.6)0.8 (2.6)0.7 (2.6)
Education (% secondary-plus)26.434.535.7
Alcohol (drinks/wk)0.9 (4.1)1.0 (4.1)1.5 (5.2)
Total carbohydrates (g/d)221.3 (75.2)234.2 (76.9)272.9 (87.7)
Sugar and candy (g/d)11.4 (8.5)13.4 (8.7)15.5 (10.0)
Total fat (g/d)42.1 (19.0)47.1 (20.3)54.0 (23.7)
Red meat intake (g/d)28.3 (22.2)34.0 (23.2)41.9 (28.1)
Total intake (kcal/d)1,505.5 (512.6)1,617.6 (533.9)1,872.0 (614.9)
Juice consumption
None<2 servings/wk≥2 servings/wk
n40,92113,4166,187
Juice (servings/wk), mean00.654.01
Age at baseline (y)57.3 (8.0)54.4 (7.5)54.1 (7.4)
Sex, female (%)58.152.548.9
BMI (kg/m2)23.1 (3.2)23.2 (3.3)23.3 (3.4)
Smoking, ever (%)30.330.430.4
Smoking, pack-years9.1 (18.7)8.4 (17.4)8.3 (17.5)
Type 2 diabetes* (%)9.86.87.2
Moderate activity (h/wk)0.8 (2.6)0.9 (2.8)1.0 (2.6)
Education (% secondary-plus)23.635.545.8
Alcohol (drinks/wk)0.9 (4.1)1.0 (4.0)1.4 (5.1)
Total carbohydrates (g/d)220.1 (75.1)235.6 (77.9)265.5 (86.4)
Sugar and candy (g/d)11.5 (8.6)12.9 (8.7)14.6 (9.9)
Total fat (g/d)41.3 (18.5)47.1 (20.3)55.4 (23.7)
Red meat intake (g/d)28.7 (22.2)33.3 (24.4)36.3 (27.2)
Total intake (kcal/d)1,490.8 (506.3)1,624.7 (539.7)1,852.9 (614.0)

NOTE: Data are mean (SD) unless noted as percentages.

  • *Includes prevalent diabetes at baseline.