Table 1.

Characteristics of non-Hispanic white participants in Los Angeles and Chinese participants in Shanghai

Los Angeles CountyShanghai
Cases, n (%)Controls, n (%)Cases, n (%)Controls, n (%)
Number of participants509 (100)602 (100)541 (100)535 (100)
Reference age, y
  Mean ± SD54.4 ± 7.154.4 ± 8.060.7 ± 9.861.8 ± 10.0
  Median56566364
  ≤4553 (10.4)74 (12.3)51 (9.4)44 (8.2)
  45—4958 (11.4)70 (11.6)31 (5.7)17 (3.2)
  50—5494 (18.5)112 (18.6)38 (7.0)27 (5.0)
  55—59155 (30.5)170 (28.2)44 (8.1)64 (12.0)
  60+149 (29.3)176 (29.2)
  60—64141 (26.1)120 (22.4)
  65+236 (43.6)263 (49.2)
Sex
  Male401 (78.8)485 (80.6)429 (79.3)412 (77.0)
  Female108 (21.2)117 (19.4)112 (20.7)123 (23.0)
Education
  Elementary or below//181 (33.5)176 (32.9)
  Middle school//158 (29.2)154 (28.8)
  High school//93 (17.2)90 (16.8)
  High school or below169 (33.2)140 (23.3)
  1–3 years of college167 (32.8)188 (31.2)70 (12.9)76 (14.2)
  College graduate173 (34.0)274 (45.5)39 (7.2)39 (7.3)
Pχ2(2df) < 0.0001Pχ2(4df) = 0.98
Cigarette smoking
  Never95 (18.7)237 (39.4)182 (33.6)238 (44.5)
  Former193 (37.9)259 (43.0)76 (14.0)86 (16.1)
  Current221 (43.4)106 (17.6)283 (52.3)211 (39.4)
Pχ2(2df) < 0.0001Pχ2(2df) < 0.0001
NSAID use
  Nonusers313 (61.5)355 (59.0)//
  1-<1,441 pills over lifetime87 (17.1)116 (19.3)//
  ≥1,441 pills over lifetime103 (20.2)129 (21.4)//
  Unknown6 (1.2)2 (0.3)//
Pχ2(3df)− 0.27
Stage/grade
  Tis30 (5.9)///
  Ta/G1112 (22.0)///
  Ta/G2172 (33.8)///
  Ta/G3—428 (5.5)///
  Ta/unknown2 (0.4)///
  T1/G18 (1.6)///
  T1/G241 (8.1)///
  T1/G3—453 (10.4)///
  T2–4/G12 (0.4)
  T2–4/G28 (1.6)///
  T2–4/G3—448 (9.4)///
  Unknown5 (1.0)///
  Ta314 (61.7)
  Other190 (37.3)
  Unknown5 (1.0)
Stage/grade
  Ta/G1–2a284 (55.8)///
  All other stage/gradeb218 (42.8)///
  Unknown7 (1.4)///
  • a“Low probability of progression” as defined by Kiemeney et al. (14).

  • b“High probability of progression” as defined by Kiemeney et al. (14).