Table 3.

Distribution and risk of appearance of an HPV infection associated with sociodemographic, sexual, reproductive, lifestyle, and immune factors among women who report no sex in the period of HPV appearance. Study of women aged 45 to 75 years in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

ControlsCasesORaPtrend
Marital statusb
   Married481
   Separated15150.37 [0.08–1.6]
   Widowed17120.25 [0.05–1.1]
   Single18180.46 [0.11–1.9]
Time since last menstrual period
   <1 y7101
   1.1–5 y820.19 [0.03–1.2]
   >5 y3940.78 [0.20–3.1]0.95
No. of past sexual partners
   120191
   2+34341.1 [0.51–2.5]
No. of pregnancies
   0–2971
   3–520110.67 [0.19–2.3]
   6–89132.3 [0.59–8.9]
   9+16222.2 [0.64–7.7]0.05
Smoking
   Never42401
   Former1080.84 [0.30–2.4]
   Current252.6 [0.47–14.9]0.48
OC use
   Never34271
   Ever20261.6 [0.71–3.7]
Injectable contraceptive use
   Never45391
   Ever9141.7 [0.64–4.4]
Cervical atrophy identified on cytologyb
   None18251
   Mild650.51 [0.13–2.1]
   Moderate14100.53 [0.18–1.5]
   Severe16130.44 [0.16–1.3]0.12
Lymphocyte proliferation in response to HPV-16 VLPsb
   Strong29211
   Middle12141.6 [0.59–4.1]
   Weak12171.9 [0.72–4.8]0.18
Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHAb
   Strong29151
   Middle16253.0 [1.2–7.5]
   Weak8122.9 [0.94–8.8]0.03
  • aAdjusted for matching variables (age and time in study).

  • bAt the time of OW study visit.