Table 1.

Distribution and risk of appearance of an HPV infection associated with sociodemographic, sexual, reproductive, lifestyle, and immune factors. Study of women aged 45 to 75 years in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

ControlsCasesORaPtrendMultivariate ORbPtrend
Length of the window
≤13 mo65841
13.1–62.5 mo103830.62 [0.40–1.0]
>62.5 mo97850.68 [0.44–1.0]0.10
Marital statusc
   Married1891721
   Separated26291.2 [0.67–2.1]
   Widowed21271.4 [0.73–2.6]
   Single29240.91 [0.49–1.6]
Time since last menstrual period
   <1 y95951
   1.1–5 y43260.55 [0.30–1.0]
   >5 y1271301.0 [0.59–1.8]0.97
No. of past sexual partners
   0 (lifetime monogamous)1179111
   166661.2 [0.79–1.9]1.3 [0.82–2.1]
   2+77951.7 [1.1–2.5]0.021.7 [1.1–2.7]0.02
No. of partners within the window [between last HPV(−) and first HPV(+) visits]d
   054531
   12021820.90 [0.57–1.4]1
   2+4174.6 [1.4–15.0]0.233.9 [1.2–12.4]
No. of pregnancies
   0–242321
   3–5104871.0 [0.60–1.8]
   6–849651.8 [1.0–3.3]
   9+70671.2 [0.68–2.3]0.21
Smoking
   Never2292191
   Former26180.72 [0.38–1.4]
   Current10141.5 [0.64–3.4]0.80
Ever OC use
   Never1269911
   Ever1391521.4 [1.0–2.0]1.4 [0.92–2.0]
Ever injectable contraceptive use
   Never2091881
   Ever56631.3 [0.84–1.9]
Cervical atrophy assessed by cytologyc
   None1431421
   Mild25230.89 [0.48–1.7]
   Moderate49480.92 [0.56–1.5]
   Severe48380.73 [0.43–1.2]0.27
Lymphocyte proliferation in response to HPV-16 VLPsc
   Strong1179011
   Middle86771.1 [0.73–1.7]1.1 [0.74–1.7]
   Weak58791.7 [1.1–2.6]0.031.7 [1.1–2.7]0.03
Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHAc
   Strong112851
   Middle84841.3 [0.84–1.9]
   Weak67781.4 [0.92–2.2]0.1
  • aAdjusted for matching variables (age and time in study).

  • bAdjusted for age, time in study, number of past sexual partners, number of partners within the window, OC use, lymphocyte proliferation in response to HPV-16 VLPs, and other partners of the partner.

  • cAt the time of OW study visit.

  • dFor the multivariate model, women with 1 partner were grouped with women with 0 partner as the comparison group.