Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants by quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary insulin loada

Dietary insulin load, energy adjusted, median547646745673807930
Dietary insulin index, energy adjusted, median344045344147
Dietary glycemic load, energy adjusted, median618411196125148
Age, mean, y464647555353
BMI, mean, kg/m223.824.424.725.825.625.0
Physical activity, mean, h/wk (NHS), MET-h/wk (HPFS)
Ulcerative colitis, %
Family history of colorectal cancer, %
History of lower endoscopy, %91010282829
Current smoking, %4027231785
Alcohol intake, mean, g/d16422784
Aspirin use, %474747312929
Multivitamin use, %353335434142
Energy intake, mean, kcal1,5581,5841,5351,9572,0261,938
Red meat, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal1.
Processed meat, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal0.
Fruit and vegetable, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal2.
Total fat, energy adjusted, mean, g/d777258767363
Protein, energy adjusted, mean, g/d777771959387
Carbohydrates, energy adjusted, mean, g/d119154194192237274

Abbreviation: MET, metabolic equivalents.

  • aAll variables (except age, dietary insulin load, dietary insulin index, and dietary glycemic load) are age standardized.

  • bBaseline: 1980 for NHS, 1986 for HPFS.