Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants by quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary insulin loada

 NHSbHPFSb
 Q1Q3Q5Q1Q3Q5
N17,28917,30417,4139,1259,1269,319
Dietary insulin load, energy adjusted, median547646745673807930
Dietary insulin index, energy adjusted, median344045344147
Dietary glycemic load, energy adjusted, median618411196125148
Age, mean, y464647555353
BMI, mean, kg/m223.824.424.725.825.625.0
Physical activity, mean, h/wk (NHS), MET-h/wk (HPFS)3.93.93.919.821.822.5
Ulcerative colitis, %0.91.01.30.91.01.1
Family history of colorectal cancer, %8.07.48.08.28.58.3
History of lower endoscopy, %91010282829
Current smoking, %4027231785
Alcohol intake, mean, g/d16422784
Aspirin use, %474747312929
Multivitamin use, %353335434142
Energy intake, mean, kcal1,5581,5841,5351,9572,0261,938
Red meat, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal1.00.90.70.60.60.4
Processed meat, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal0.120.110.080.100.090.06
Fruit and vegetable, mean, servings/d/1,000 kcal2.42.72.92.72.82.9
Total fat, energy adjusted, mean, g/d777258767363
Protein, energy adjusted, mean, g/d777771959387
Carbohydrates, energy adjusted, mean, g/d119154194192237274

Abbreviation: MET, metabolic equivalents.

  • aAll variables (except age, dietary insulin load, dietary insulin index, and dietary glycemic load) are age standardized.

  • bBaseline: 1980 for NHS, 1986 for HPFS.