Table 1.

Characteristics of the studies (n = 30) and study populations (n = 33) included in the analyses

Author, yearLocationStudy designStudy samplingStudy populationFemale specimen collectionMale specimen collectionHPV detectionHPV typesNo. of couples
Overall (33 study populations)Europe: 52%Co: 76%Cn: 88%H: 85%16: 100%Median: 45
Asia: 36%Ca: 24%P: 12%PCR: 58%18: 94%
1994 or earlier: 52%Latin America: 15%X: 88%H + PCR: 42%6: 70%Range: 4-499
1995 or later: 48%United States: 9%L: 12%11: 70%
5+ types total: 61%
4 types total or less: 39%
Baken et al., 1995 (26)United StatesCo, XCnHeterosexual couples attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinicVulvovaginal, cervical, perianal swabsPenile swabsH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 5645
Bar-Am and Niv, 2007 (27)Israel*Co, XCnFemales with CIN3 undergoing cone biopsy at 1 hospital and their male partnersCervical specimensPenile shaft, scrotum, perianal area swabsH16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 5674
Benevolo et al., 2008 (28)ItalyCo, XCnWomen with current or past CIN (1-3) and/or a positive HPV DNA test and their stable male partnersCervicovaginal brushingsPenile brushingsH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, 8255
Bleeker et al., 2005 (24)NetherlandsCo, XCnHeterosexual couples recruited from colposcopy clinic; women had mild dyskaryosis or worse noted by cytologic examination of the cervix and/or CIN noted by colposcopy or histologic examination.Cervical scrapingsPenile scrapingsH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82/MM4, 82/IS39, 83, 84, cand89181
Campion et al., 1985 (29)United KingdomCa, XCnFemale partners of men with penile condylomata acuminataUrethral, high-vaginal, and endocervical swabs and smearsPenile and perianal biopsiesH6, 11, 169
Franceschi et al., 2002a (30)Spain, Columbia, ThailandCa, XPReports data from 7 case-control studies; case women were newly diagnosed with ICC or CIS and men were stable partners of these womenCervical scrapingsPenile swabs (distal urethra, glans, coronal sulcus)H, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, “other types” does not specify499
Franceschi et al., 2002b (30)Spain, Columbia, ThailandCa, XPReports data from 7 case-control studies; control women were population-based (2 studies) or hospital-based (5 studies) and men were stable partners of these womenCervical scrapingsPenile swabs (distal urethra, glans, coronal sulcus)H, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, “other types” does not specify465
Gal et al., 1989 (31)IsraelCo, LCnWomen referred to dysplasia clinic with diagnosis of an HPV-related lesion and their male partnersColposcopy/biopsy from HPV-related lesions and CINColposcopy/biopsy from HPV-related lesionsH6, 11, 16, 1876
Giovannelli et al., 2007 (25)ItalyCo, XCnConsecutive HPV-positive women with abnormal Pap smears and their husbands or current stable male partnersCervical brushingsPenile brushings (shaft, foreskin, coronal sulcus, frenulum, glans), urethral brushings, semenH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 54, 70, 74, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68; also used a 43 type amplifier to detect HPV DNA45
Giraldo et al., 2008 (32)Brazil*Co, XCnMen who were asymptomatic partners of women with a histopathologic diagnosis of LGSILNot reportedPenile brushings (base, body, balanopreputial folds, preputium, distal urethra)H16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 6854
Golijow et al., 2005 (33)ArgentinaCo, XCnMen attending a urological department with an HPV-positive female partnerNot reportedFirst void urine specimensPCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 34, 57112
Gomousa-Michael et al., 1997 (34)GreeceCo, XCnFemales with HPV or SIL and their male partnersCervical specimens using cytobrush, colposcopy, punch biopsyUrethral samples using cytobrushH6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 3520
Gross et al., 1986 (35)Germany*Co, XCnMale patients with Bowenoid papulosis or genital warts and females with CIN 1-3 or VIN 1-3 plus the partners of these peopleCervical and vulvar lesion specimensPenile lesionsH6, 11, 16, 1850
Gupta et al., 2006a (36)India*Ca, XCnCases were women with histologically confirmed ICC and their husbandsCervical biopsy and urinePenile swabs (intrameatal and distal urethra, external surface of the glans and coronal sulcus), urinePCR16, 1830
Gupta et al., 2006b (36)India*Ca, XCnControls were women with normal or inflammatory or negative cervical cytology and their husbandsCervical scrapings (ectocervix, surface of the cervical portion) and urinePenile swabs (intrameatal and distal urethra, external surface of the glans and coronal sulcus), urinePCR16, 1830
Hernandez et al., 2008 (37)United StatesCo, LCnCouples attending a university health clinicCervical smear, swabs, cytobrush from ectocervix and endocervix, anal swabs, oral cytobrushings, dominant hand swabs, first-catch urine samplesSwabs from penis (glans/corona, shaft), scrotum, inner foreskin (for uncircumcised men), and anus; oral cytobrushings; dominant hand swabs, first-catch urine samples, semenPCR6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, IS39, 6P610825
Hillman et al., 1993 (38)United KingdomCo, LCnCouples in which 1 partner had clinically apparent anogenital wartsUrethral loop, cervical scrapes and cytologic brushings from endocervix, cytobrushings from anal canal, rectal swab, buccal scrapes, vaginal washes, biopsies, bloodUrethral loop, rectal swabs, penile samples (glans, shaft, scrotum), cytobrushings from anal canal, buccal scrapes, biopsies, bloodH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 334
Hippelainen et al., 1994 (39)FinlandCo, XCnConsecutive women referred for examination for a newly detected abnormal Pap smear and their male partnersPunch biopsiesBiopsiesH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42270
Ho et al., 1993 (40)SingaporeCo, XCnConsecutive women undergoing colposcopic evaluation of abnormal Pap smears and their husbandsCervical smear or biopsyPenile (shaft, foreskin, glans) smears or punch biopsyPCR1617
Inoue et al., 1992 (41)JapanCo, XCnWomen attending acolposcopy clinic and their male partnersSwabs from uterine ectocervixSemenH, PCR16, 1823
Konno et al., 1990 (42)JapanCo, XCnCouples presenting with genital warts (female vulvar and cervical condylomata and penile condylomata from male partners) to a sexually transmitted diseases clinicCervical or vulvar biopsiesPenile biopsiesH6, 11, 16, 1812
Kyo et al., 1994a (43)JapanCa, XPCases were women with ICC or CIN and their male partnersCervical scrapes from uterine ectocervixSemenH, PCR16, 1812
Kyo et al., 1994b (43)JapanCa, XPControls were women presenting for evaluation of infertility with normal Pap smears and their male partnersCervical scrapes from uterine ectocervixSemenH, PCR16, 1841
Monsonego et al., 1993 (44)FranceCo, XCnWomen with anogenital tract HPV infection (clinical warts, cytologic abnormality, or colposcopic abnormality) and their male partnersSamples from exocervix and vagina using an Ayre spatula, cytobrushings from endocervix, and biopsies from lesions on cervix, vagina, vulva, perineum, and anusPenile biopsies and cellular material from urethral meatusH6, 11, 16, 18, undetermined type (not type 6, 11, 16, or 18)350
Nakazawa et al., 1991 (45)JapanCo, XCnWomen who underwent hysterectomy because of cervical neoplasms and their male partnersSwabs from ectocervixUrineH, PCR16, 1823
Nicolau et al., 2005 (46)BrazilCo, XCnHPV-positive women and their stable male partnersNot reportedBrushings from glans, prepuce internal surface (including sulcus and corona), distal urethra, prepuce external surface (in conjunction with cutis penis), scrotum, and anus; biopsies from subclinical or clinically apparent lesionsH6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 6850
Nieminen et al., 1991 (47)FinlandCa, XCnCases were regular male partners of women positive for HPV DNA from the cervixCervical samplesSemenH6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 3517
Rintala et al., 2005 (48)FinlandCo, LCnCohort of young pregnant women, fathers-to-be, and infants to assess familial transmission; study included consecutive familiesCervical smear; brushings from vagina, exocervix, endocervix; scrapings from cervical mucosa and oral mucosaeSemen, scrapings from the urethral mucosa and oral mucosaeH, PCR16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 5876
Rosemberg et al., 1988 (49)United StatesCo, XCnMales who have had contact with known HPV-infected femalesNot reportedUrethral cytobrushingsH6, 11, 16, 1875
Rotola et al., 1994 (50)ItalyCo, XCnMale partners of females who were diagnosed as having HPV genital infection by colposcopy, cytology, or histologyCervical specimensBiopsies from penile, scrotum, pubis, and perianal regionsH6, 11, 16, 18, 3315
Schneider et al., 1988 (51)Germany*Co, XCnMale partners of women with documented HPV-associated lesions of the cervixCervical specimensPenile swabs (preputial sac, glans penis, fossa navicularis, penile shaft),H6, 11, 16, 18, 31156
Strand et al., 1995 (52)Sweden*Co, XCnWomen referred to colposcopy clinic due to recently detected HPV infection or an abnormal Pap smear and their male partnersSpecimens from cervical or vaginal lesionsCytobrushings from glans penis, sulcus, preputium, and penile shaft; sample from distal part of urethra taken with a plastic probe; biopsies from any clinical abnormalityH, PCR6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 42, 43, 44, 51, 52, 56, 5825
Wickenden et al., 1988 (53)United KingdomCo, XCnMen and women presenting at a clinic for genital warts who brought their partners into the clinic within 28 dCervical scrapings; biopsies from exophytic warts (could be cervical, vulval, perianal, or pharyngeal)Biopsies from exophytic warts (could be penile, perianal, or pharyngeal)H6, 11, 16, 1836

Abbreviations: Co, cohort study; Ca, case-control study; X, cross-sectional data; L, longitudinal data; Cn, convenience sample; P, population-based sample; H, DNA hybridization methods; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIS, carcinoma in situ; SIL, squamous intraepithelial lesion; LGSIL, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; ICC, invasive cervical cancer; VIN, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

  • *Study location not stated explicitly but inferred from the authors' academic affiliations.