Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of cases and controls in the EPIC-Heidelberg nested case-control study (n = 740)

Cases (n = 248)Controls (n = 492)
Mean ± SDMean ± SD
Age (y)58.1 ± 4.858.1 ± 4.8
BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 3.627.3 ± 3.4
n (%)n (%)
Smoking status
    Never99 (39.9)166 (33.7)
    Former112 (45.2)241 (49.0)
    Current37 (14.9)85 (17.3)
Educational attainment
    No/primary school89 (35.9)158 (32.1)
    Secondary/technical school82 (33.1)153 (31.1)
    University77 (31.1)181 (36.8)
Positive family history of prostate cancer18 (7.3)9 (1.8)
Median (interquartile range)Median (interquartile range)
Energy (kJ/d)8,433 (7,251-9,922)8,657 (7,206-10,455)
Glucosinolates (mg/d)7.7 (5.2-11.5)9.2 (5.8-13.4)
Vegetables (g/d)100.1 (78.7-129.3)102.1 (79.5-139.6)
Serum GST-α concentration* (μg/L)3.39 (2.98-3.85)4.30 (3.93-4.71)
  • *Geometric mean and (95% CI) adjusted by matching factors of 243 cases and 482 controls (those with GST-α concentrations outside the range covered by the internal standard or with missing values were excluded).